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Essay Energy Crisis In Pakistan Causes And Consequences

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

2. Pakistan’s Energy Sector
2.1 Energy Demand and Supply

3. Pakistan Energy Resources
3.1 Non- Renewable Energy Resources
3.2 Renewable Energy Resources

4. Causes: How Did We Get Here

5. Consequences of the Energy Crisis

6. Sustainable Solutions to the Energy Crisis

7. Long Term Measures(Shifting to Altenate Sources)

8. Short Term Measures

9. Bibliography

10. A Report by Express Tribune


Energy is considered to be the life line of an economy. It is a most vital instrument of the socio-economic development of a country. Energy is a very important factor in the production process. Energy is pivotal in running machinery in factories and industrial units, for lighting our cities and powering our vehicles etc.

There has been enormous increase in the demand of energy due to the massive industrialization and rapid population growth in comparison to the enhancement in the supply of energy production. Supply of energy is, therefore, far less than the actual demand, resultantly crisis has emerged. An energy crisis can be defined as any great bottleneck (or price rise) in the supply of energy resources to an economy. With the evolution of civilizations, the human demand for energy has continuously increased. At present , the key factor which drives the growth in energy demand include increasing human population, modernization and urbanization .According to the united nations , the world population 6.5 billion in 2005 is to grow to 9.1 billion by 2050 and most of the population growth is expected to place in the developing world Asia and Africa.(Dinner, 1999). Poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy and environmental degradation are the most important challenges faced by the world. Poor and inadequate access to secure an affordable means of energy in one of the crucial factors behind these issues. Electricity for example is vital for providing basic social services such as education and health, water supply and purification, sanitation, and refrigeration of essential medicines. Electricity is of course, very helpful in supporting a wide range of income generation opportunities.

The leading countries in the world in terms of population without access to electricity include India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Congo, Ethiopia, Myanmar, Tanzania, and Kenya. With the growing world population and people's aspiration for improved life a central and collective global issue in the new century is to sustain socio-economic growth within the constraints of the earth’s limited natural resource along with preserving the environment.

Pakistan’s Energy Sector

Pakistan’s energy infrastructure is not well developed, rather it is considered to be underdeveloped and poorly managed. Currently the country is facing severe energy crisis. Despite of strong economic growth and rising energy demand during past decade, no serious efforts have been made to install new capacity of generation. Moreover, rapid demand growth, transmission losses due to out-dated infrastructure, power theft, and seasonal reductions in the availability of hydropower have worsened the situation. Consequently, the demand exceeds supply and hence load-shedding is a common phenomenon through power shutdown.

Energy Supply and Demand:

For years, the matter of balancing Pakistan's supply against the demand for electricity has remained a largely unresolved matter. Pakistan faces a significant challenge in revamping its network responsible for the supply of electricity

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At present, the power supply across the country is 9,500 MW with demand around 15,000 MW, causing the 5300 MW shortfall approximately.

Sources of Energy in Pakistan

Non-renewable resources (Fossil fuels): [Limited – Expensive]

Non-renewable resources are primarily fossil fuels emanating from remains/decomposition of animals and plants deposited deep into the earth crust and converted into oil and gas. These resources cannot be replenished. There are three main types of fossil fuels: coal, petroleum, natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).

- Petroleum Products
- Natural Gas
- Coal

Renewable Energy Resources: (Unlimited – sustainable – clean)

Renewable energy resources are those, which are naturally replenished and come from resources such as water, sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat;


Hydro power is generated by using electricity generators to extract energy from moving water. Pakistan is having rich resource of energy in hydal power; however, only 34 % of total electricity generation is coming from hydro power. Currently we are having 6555 MW against the potential of 41000 to 45000 MW.

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Causes: How Did We Get Here

Pakistan’s power disaster traces its origins to pursuing different reasons:

Growing Power Demand:

Over the years there is larger demand of power because of;

- Increase in the Population
- Enhancement in the Lifestyle
- Industrial and Agricultural Growth
- Greater Transportation Needs

Lack of Proactive and Integrated Planning for Production of Energy:

Pakistan has had wider potentials to tap power, though, due to lack of each integrated/proactive arranging, extremely less number of manipulation producing plant were installed to encounter innovative demands. Resultantly, above the years, the gap amid power demand and supply drastically produced and nowadays opposing demand of 20000 MW, we are possessing concerning 11500 MW.

Imbalanced Energy Mix:

Energy blend in Pakistan is quite imbalance in comparison to other countries, alongside larger reliance on non-renewable resources of gas (43.7 %) and oil (29 % - bulk of that is imported). Benefits of petroleum products/crude oil fluctuate and in present Afro-Arab governmental disaster, the oil benefits are probable to raise manifold altering oil benefits in Pakistan. A rational power blend arranging must to be industrialized providing larger dependency to renewable (hydel power), original (coal) and alternative power resources (wind and solar energy).

Non-utilization of enormous indigenous energy resources:

Thar Coal:

Pakistan possesses one of the biggest coal fields in Thar, possessing reserves of extra than 175 billion tones that exceeds equivalent oil reserves of Saudi Arabia, Iran etc. In supplement to manipulation creation, this coal can be utilized for chemical and fertilizer production. Moreover, occupation endowed to workforce can be instrumental in rising GDP and commercial prosperity to countless families


Energy Crisis Essay Outline

  1. 1.      Introduction
  2. 2.      Pakistan Energy Sector
  • Energy Supply
  • Energy Consumption
  1. 3.      Sources of Energy In Pakistan
  • Non-Renewable Resources
  • Renewable Resources
  • Alternative Energy Sources
  1. 4.      Causes of Energy Crisis in Pakistan
  • Higher Consumption
  • Less supply
  • Energy theft
  1. 5.      Recommendations and Solutions

Introduction: Energy is very much essential for all the activities of the daily life and that is why its deficiency can have sever impacts on the lives of the people as well as the economy of the state, and that is why it is considered to be one of the most significant fundamental rights of the people and is the most important obligation of the government to provide the people of the state with the required capacity of the Energy.

Pakistan Energy Sector: Pakistan in one of those countries which don’t have a very well equipped and stable infrastructure of the Energy sector for which it is not developed properly and that is one major Problem of Pakistan and core reason for which the country is facing sever and alarming energy crisis from the past one decade. The Government has not shown some positive intent and instead of planning for new projects of energy generation or from shifting from traditional means to something new and more effective they have relied on imposing the cost of the energy on the local people which has made it very difficult for the locals to pay the bills and hence, the problem is still their existing.

The difference between the demand and the supply of the energy is getting higher and higher which is even making the conditions worse. In the time span of 2009 and 2010 it was being reported that the energy supply per capita availability of energy declined by 0.64% but in the last year which was 2012 the decline has reached to almost 3.09%. in the modern scenario the energy consumption and energy supply gap is increasing by time to time as the current production of the Energy in Pakistan is almost 15,000 to 20,000 Mega Watt but at the same the production is just 11, 500 to 13, 000 Mega Watt so the deficit of 4,000 to 5,000 Mega Watt exists which is considered to be a huge difference.

Pakistan Energy consumption is increasing to a huge extent and that is why it is not just relying on the Electricity as there are a lot of Electricity Crisis in Pakistan too but at the same time which are also contributing in this regard of meeting the shortfall.

Sources of Energy in Pakistan:  Pakistan do have the leverage of not only depending on the electricity traditional means of the generation of power and energy but at the same time they have many other sources but the only need is to plan them properly and more practically so that they can be used for the purpose of energy production.

Under the non renewable resources we do have Petroleum products, fossil fuels, Coal, Natural gas as in Pakistan the contribution of various sources of power are as follows;

  • Gas: 43.7%
  • Oil/Petroleum: 29.0%
  • Electricity: 15.3%
  • Coal: 10.4%
  • LPG: 1.5%

In renewable resources we do have the hydro power system which can be increased and enhanced so that we can meet our demands and the short fall can be decreased.

Current Hydropower stations:

  • Tarbella Dam : 3,478 MW
  • Ghazi Brotha: 1450 MW
  • Mangla 1,000 MW
  • Warsak 240 MW
  • Chashma 184 MW

Potential Hydropower stations:

  • Diamer-Bhasha Dam 4500 MW
  • Munda Dam – Swat river in Mohamand Agency 740 MW
  • Kalabagh Dam 2400-3600 MW
  • Bunji Dam 5400 MW
  • Dasu Dam 3800 MW

In the alternate solutions for the meeting the demand and supply gap in Pakistan we need to establish those means of energy production which are not that much common in Pakistan, as in this process we can shift from the traditional means of generating energy, this will also enable us to generate more energy and will also help us to prevent the reserves of the oil and gas in our country. The alternate means of generating energy in Pakistan are;

  • Wind
  • Solar
  • Agricultural Biomass and Biodiesel
  • Tidal
  • Nuclear

Causes of Energy Crisis in Pakistan: The major causes and the reason which have contributing in to the power shortfall is the mainly due to the increasing populations, because as simple as that the population is increasing day by day in the state which is definitely increasing the demand of energy and that is increasing the demand to supply gap. Energy theft is also a curse which Pakistan is bearing in which people not only on domestic level but even commercially and industrially are doing energy theft in which they are consuming the energy on high levels but are not paying the concerned department and body for which that all energy is being drained in vein.

Recommendations & Solutions: The solutions of the energy crisis in Pakistan must be implemented and adopted on emergency basis and the main solution to the problem is that the administration should shift to more modernized means of production so that they can increase the level of production and should meet the demand and at the same time the responsibility also lies on the people of the state that they should play their role in reducing the consumption and saving the energy so that Pakistan can be brought out of this alarming situation and from this threatening problem.

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