1 Mikinos

Writer At Work The Essayist

 

When I started grad school at age 30, I barely knew what an essay was, let alone how to write one. In my MFA writing workshops, I met people – my age and younger – who were excitedly submitting first-person work while I struggled with even writing “I” on the page.

Responding to my first attempt at memoir, my teacher wrote back, “Why is this in the third person?”

I wanted to disappear into the narrative, like my news writing usually allowed. It wasn’t until I studied with Philip Lopate and Susan Shapiro did I begin to understand – and covet – the power of the personal essay.

So when 25-year essayist Bob Brody recently invited me to cover his panel “Getting to the Heart of the Personal Essay” at the American Society of Journalists and Authors 2016 Writer’s Conference, I said yes.

The lineup included my old professor Philip Lopate, likely our most profound contemporary essayist and scholar of essays; author Pamela Paul, the New York TimesBook Review Editor; and Ada Calhoun, an author and essayist with two “Modern Loves” and four “Lives” columns in the New York Times.

From these literary heroes, I gained new perspective on the form and, surprisingly, myself.

 

Essay is the new black.

Brody opened the panel by asking whether it seemed like everyone is writing personal essays these days.

Lopate said that though essays went through a “dark period” when even the New York TimesBook Review didn’t cover collections of personal essays, the essay is coming back.

“I think that we are living in a time when there’s great confusion and the essay functions on doubt and skepticism,” he said. “The essayist can think against himself or herself and change one’s mind, so I think it’s a more fluid form that fits the times.”

Paul, who is working a book titled My Life with Bob, said that first-person details beyond “I have seven brothers” were frowned upon when she was growing up.

“People felt shy about writing in that way, so I think it’s kind of nice that it’s opened people up to a comfortable level,” she said.

Even academics now begin essays with the first person before moving into a scholarly voice, blurring the line between the personal and impersonal form, said Lopate, who edited “The Art of the Personal Essay.”

And while social media and blogs allow so many to say so much (or so little) Calhoun said there’s a difference between the form itself and blogs or postings.

“It’s not the same thing as something that has been crafted,” said Calhoun.

“It remains difficult to write a personal essay and more difficult to do it year after year,” said Lopate.

 

Research and the personal essay are not mutually exclusive.

Essays don’t have to just rely on the narrator’s perspective. Calhoun approaches her work with the honesty of an essayist and the skills of a journalist.

“I’ll do personal and emotional research. If I’m writing something about someone ten years ago, I will call them up,” Calhoun said. “It ends up being therapy and research.”

Paul saves research for certain moments, it seems like for when she’s gotten the creative work done.

“I’m writing a book about something that happened 20 to 30 years ago and it only occurred to me recently and I could actually Google that tiny little guest house,” Paul said.

“I know that and I haven’t done it yet,” she continued. “I do think it changes the writing in a way.”

The reported personal essay is also a hybrid from that mixes first-person and reporting. Paul referenced Jonathan Franzen’s recent reported essay “The End Of The End Of The World” in The New Yorker.

Lopate said that when he first started writing essays, he initially scoffed at calls to do reporting in his essays but he ultimately “began to go over to the other side.”

“To go out into the world and fetch some story back, that’s a beautiful thing, to combine the personal with reported,” Lopate said.

 

A good essayist is a character that can write about anything and nothing.

Brody, whose memoir Playing Catch With Strangers: A Family Guy (Reluctantly) Comes Of Age comes out next summer on Heliotrope Books, asked the audience members to raise their hands if they’d written essays – and intend to write more.

The panel commented on why the majority of the room, mostly women, was drawn to the form.

“It’s an understandably human impulse to want to make sense of your life,” Lopate said. “One of the tricks is that you have to sculpt yourself into a character. If you write one personal essay, you can’t tell your whole life in it. You have to take a good look at yourself and work with some elements of your character but not everything.”

Paul said that part of characterization is being a strong writer with a distinctive voice, not just having “a great story.”

“Even if you have an incredibly interesting story, if you can’t write it, you’re no different than anyone else. It comes down to the writing. A truly great writer can write about nothing in an essay and you’d want to read it,” said Paul, referencing a David Sedaris essay about standing in line in an airport.

Calhoun said that she uses emotions like doubt, confusion, shame, and anger to fuel her essay writing.

“It’s the way I figure out the way I feel about something,” Calhoun said. “Like Phil was saying: If you know how you feel, then why bother writing about it?”

Lopate recalled that he wasn’t initially drawn to essays in high school and college until he came across writers that engaged him, like Montaigne.

“I wanted to know what these writers would say about anything big or small. They were like uncles [to me],” Lopate said.

 

On the walk across Midtown to catch my bus, I thought about when Brody had asked the panel why they write personal essays.

One response shifted something inside me, gave me a new mission for putting my own “I” on the page.

“I think personal essays are a public service,” Calhoun said. “When personal essays are good and really honest, they make other people feel less alone.”

 

 

 

Keysha Whitaker’s work has recently appeared in The New Yorker and McSweeney’s Internet Tendency. She hosts and produces the podcast Behind the Prose.

David Foster Wallace

Wallace giving a reading for Booksmith at All Saints Church, San Francisco in 2006

Born(1962-02-21)February 21, 1962
Ithaca, New York, U.S.
DiedSeptember 12, 2008(2008-09-12) (aged 46)
Claremont, California, U.S.
OccupationNovelist, short story writer, essayist, college professor
Alma materAmherst College
University of Arizona
Harvard University
Period1987–2008
GenreLiterary fiction, non-fiction
Literary movementPostmodern literature, post-postmodernism, hysterical realism, New Sincerity
Notable works

David Foster Wallace (February 21, 1962 – September 12, 2008) was an American writer and university instructor of English and creative writing. His novel Infinite Jest (1996) was listed by Time magazine as one of the hundred best English-language novels published between 1923 and 2005.[1] His last novel, The Pale King (2011), was a final selection for the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 2012.

The Los Angeles Times book reviewer David Ulin called Wallace "one of the most influential and innovative writers of the last twenty years".[2] Wallace's works have influenced writers such as Dave Eggers,[3]Zadie Smith,[4]Jonathan Franzen,[5]Elizabeth Wurtzel,[6]George Saunders,[7]Rivka Galchen, Matthew Gallaway, David Gordon, Darin Strauss, Charles Yu, and Deb Olin Unferth.[8]

Life[edit]

David Foster Wallace was born in Ithaca, New York, to Sally Jean Wallace (née Foster) and James Donald Wallace, and lived his early life in Champaign, Illinois.[9] His father is an emeritus professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His mother was a professor of English at Parkland College, a community college in Champaign, which recognized her work with a "Professor of the Year" award in 1996. When Wallace was in fourth grade, the family moved to nearby Urbana, where he attended Yankee Ridge Elementary School and Urbana High School.

As an adolescent, he was a regionally ranked junior tennis player, an experience he wrote about in the essay "Derivative Sport in Tornado Alley", originally published in Harper's Magazine as "Tennis, Trigonometry, Tornadoes". Although his parents were atheists, Wallace twice attempted to join the Roman Catholic Church, but "flunk[ed] the period of inquiry"; he later attended a Mennonite church.[10][11][12]

Wallace attended Amherst College, his father’s alma mater, where he majored in English and philosophy, and graduated summa cum laude in 1985. Among other extracurricular activities, he participated in glee club; his sister recalls that "David had a lovely singing voice".[13] In studying philosophy, Wallace pursued modal logic and mathematics, and presented a senior thesis in philosophy and modal logic that was awarded the Gail Kennedy Memorial Prize and posthumously published as Fate, Time, and Language: An Essay on Free Will (2011).[15]

By the time he graduated, with his honors thesis in English becoming the manuscript of his first novel, The Broom of the System (1987),[16] Wallace had committed to being a writer. He told David Lipsky: "Writing [The Broom of the System], I felt like I was using ninety-seven percent of me, whereas philosophy was using fifty percent." Wallace completed a Master of Fine Arts degree in creative writing at the University of Arizona in 1987. He then moved to Massachusetts to attend graduate school in philosophy at Harvard University, but soon left the program.

In Every Love Story Is a Ghost Story: A Life of David Foster Wallace (2012), the biographer D. T. Max said that in the early 1990s Wallace was romantically obsessed with the writer Mary Karr, tattooing her name on his body[17] and once considering killing her husband.[18] Wallace and Karr later had a tumultuous relationship, during which, Karr said, Wallace once threw a coffee table at her and also tried to push her out of a moving car.[17][18] In 2002, Wallace met the painter Karen L. Green, whom he married two years later, on December 27, 2004.[18][19][20]

Wallace struggled with alcoholism, drug addiction, and suicidal tendencies, with recurrent psychological depression and commitments to psychiatric wards, bouts of inappropriate sexual behavior with some of his women students, and stalking a woman of whom he was enamored.[21] Dogs were important to him,[22][20] and he spoke of opening a shelter for stray canines.[22] According to Jonathan Franzen, Wallace "had a predilection for dogs who'd been abused, and [were] unlikely to find other owners who were going to be patient enough for them."[20]

Work[edit]

Career[edit]

The Broom of the System (1987) garnered national attention and critical praise. In The New York Times, the reviewer Caryn James called the novel a "manic, human, flawed extravaganza … emerging straight from the excessive tradition of Stanley Elkin's The Franchiser, Thomas Pynchon's V., [and] John Irving's World According to Garp".[23]

In 1991, Wallace began teaching literature as an adjunct professor at Emerson College in Boston. The next year, at the suggestion of colleague and supporter Steven Moore, Wallace obtained a position in the English department at Illinois State University. He had begun work on his second novel, Infinite Jest, in 1991, and submitted a draft to his editor in December 1993. After the publication of excerpts throughout 1995, the book was published in 1996.

In 1997, Wallace received a MacArthur Fellowship, as well as the Aga Khan Prize for Fiction, awarded by editors of The Paris Review for one of the stories in Brief Interviews which had appeared in the magazine.[24]

In 2002, he moved to Claremont, California, to become the first Roy E. Disney Professor of Creative Writing and Professor of English at Pomona College. He taught one or two undergraduate courses per semester and focused on writing.

Wallace delivered the commencement address to the 2005 graduating class at Kenyon College. The speech was published as a book, This Is Water, in 2009.[25] In May 2013, parts of the speech were used in a popular online video, also titled "This Is Water".[26]

Bonnie Nadell was Wallace's literary agent during his entire career.[27] Michael Pietsch was his editor on Infinite Jest.[28]

In March 2009, Little, Brown and Company announced that it would publish the manuscript of an unfinished novel, The Pale King, which Wallace had been working on before his death. The Pale King was pieced together by Pietsch from pages and notes Wallace left behind.[29][30]Several excerpts were published in The New Yorker and other magazines. The Pale King was published on April 15, 2011, and received generally positive reviews.[31]

Throughout his career, Wallace published short fiction in periodicals such as The New Yorker, GQ, Harper's Magazine, Playboy, The Paris Review, Mid-American Review, Conjunctions, Esquire, Open City, Puerto del Sol, and Timothy McSweeney's Quarterly Concern.

Themes and styles[edit]

Wallace wanted to progress beyond the irony and the metafiction associated with postmodernism; in the essay "E Unibus Pluram: Television and U.S. Fiction" (1993),[32] he proposed that television has an ironic influence on fiction, and urges literary authors to eschew TV’s shallow rebelliousness: "I want to convince you that irony, poker-faced silence, and fear of ridicule are distinctive of those features of contemporary U.S. culture (of which cutting-edge fiction is a part) that enjoy any significant relation to the television whose weird, pretty hand has my generation by the throat. I’m going to argue that irony and ridicule are entertaining and effective, and that, at the same time, they are agents of a great despair and stasis in U.S. culture, and that, for aspiring fictionists, they pose terrifically vexing problems." Wallace used many forms of irony, but tended to focus on individual persons’ continued longing for earnest, un-self-conscious experience and communication in a media-saturated society.[33]

Wallace's fiction combines narrative modes and authorial voices that incorporate jargon and invented vocabulary, such as self-generated abbreviations and acronyms, long, multi-clause sentences, and extensive use of explanatory footnotes and endnotes. He used endnotes extensively in Infinite Jest and footnotes in the story "Octet" (in Brief Interviews with Hideous Men) and most of his nonfiction after 1996. In 1997, while being interviewed on Charlie Rose, Wallace said that the notes were to disrupt the linear narrative, to reflect his perception of reality without jumbling the narrative structure, and that he could have jumbled the sentences "but then no one would read it".[34]

Max described Wallace’s work as an "unusual mixture of the cerebral and the hot-blooded",[35] often featuring multiple protagonists and spanning different locations in a single work. His writing comments on the fragmentation of thought,[36] the relationship between happiness and boredom, and the psychological tension between the beauty and hideousness of the human body.[37] According to Wallace, "fiction’s about what it is to be a fucking human being", and he said he wanted to write "morally passionate, passionately moral fiction" that could help the reader "become less alone inside".[38] In his Kenyon College commencement address, Wallace described the human condition as daily crises and chronic disillusionment and warned against succumbing to solipsism,[39] invoking the existential values of compassion and mindfulness:

The really important kind of freedom involves attention, and awareness, and discipline, and effort, and being able truly to care about other people and to sacrifice for them, over and over, in myriad petty little unsexy ways, every day. . . . The only thing that's capital-T True is that you get to decide how you're going to try to see it. You get to consciously decide what has meaning and what doesn't. . . . The trick is keeping the truth up-front in daily consciousness.[40]

Nonfiction[edit]

Wallace covered Senator John McCain's 2000 presidential campaign[41] and the September 11 attacks for Rolling Stone;[42] cruise ships[43] (in what became the title essay of his first nonfiction book), state fairs, and tornadoes for Harper's Magazine; the US Open tournament for Tennis magazine; the director David Lynch and the pornography industry for Premiere magazine; the tennis player Michael Joyce for Esquire; the special-effects film industry for Waterstone's magazine; conservative talk radio host John Ziegler for The Atlantic Monthly;[44] and a Maine lobster festival for Gourmet magazine.[45] He also reviewed books in several genres for the Los Angeles Times, The Washington Post, The New York Times, and The Philadelphia Inquirer. In the November 2007 issue of The Atlantic, which commemorated the magazine's 150th anniversary, Wallace was among the authors, artists, politicians and others who wrote short pieces on "the future of the American idea".[46]

These and other essays appear in three collections, A Supposedly Fun Thing I'll Never Do Again, Consider the Lobster, and the posthumous Both Flesh and Not, the last of which contains some of Wallace's earliest work, including his first published essay, "Fictional Futures and the Conspicuously Young".[47]

Some writers have found parts of Wallace's nonfiction implausible. Franzen has said that he believes Wallace made up dialogue and incidents: "those things didn’t actually happen".[48]John Cook has remarked that "Wallace encounters pitch-perfect characters who speak comedically crystalline lines and place him in hilariously absurd situations...I used both stories [in teaching journalism] as examples of the inescapable temptation to shave, embellish, and invent narratives".[49]

Legacy[edit]

In March 2010, the media announced that Wallace's personal papers and archives—drafts of books, stories, essays, poems, letters, and research, including the handwritten notes for Infinite Jest—had been purchased by the University of Texas at Austin, and they now reside at that university's Harry Ransom Center.[50]

The first annual David Foster Wallace Conference was hosted by the Illinois State University Department of English in May 2014; the second was held in May 2015.[51]

Since 2011, Loyola University New Orleans has offered English seminar courses on Wallace. Similar courses are also taught at Harvard University.

In January 2017, the International David Foster Wallace Society and the Journal of David Foster Wallace Studies were launched.[52][53]

Adaptations[edit]

Film and television[edit]

A filmed adaptation of Brief Interviews, directed by John Krasinski with an ensemble cast, was released in 2009 and premiered at the Sundance Film Festival.[54] It received poor reviews.

The Simpsons episode "A Totally Fun Thing That Bart Will Never Do Again" (2012) is loosely based on Wallace's essay "A Supposedly Fun Thing I'll Never Do Again". The Simpson family takes a cruise, and Wallace appears in the background of a scene, wearing a tuxedo T-shirt while eating in the ship's dining room; Wallace recounts having worn such a T-shirt "at formal suppers".

The End of the Tour is a film based on David Lipsky's conversations with Wallace in Although of Course You End Up Becoming Yourself, with Jason Segel playing Wallace and Jesse Eisenberg as Lipsky. The film won an Audience Award for Best Narrative Feature at the Sarasota Film Festival,[55] and Segel was nominated for the Independent Spirit Award for Best Male Lead.

"Partridge", a Season 5 episode of NBC's Parks and Recreation, repeatedly references Infinite Jest, of which the show's co-creator, Michael Schur, is a noted fan. Schur also directed the music video for The Decemberists' "Calamity Song", which depicts the Eschaton game from Infinite Jest.[56]

Stage and music[edit]

Twelve of the interviews from Brief Interviews with Hideous Men were adapted into a stage play in 2000, the first theatrical adaptation of Wallace's work. The play, Hideous Men, adapted and directed by Dylan McCullough, premiered at the New York International Fringe Festival in August 2000.

Brief Interviews was also adapted by director Marc Caellas as a play, Brief Interviews with Hideous Writers, which premiered at Fundación Tomás Eloy Martinez in Buenos Aires on November 4, 2011.[57]

The short story "Tri-Stan: I Sold Sissee Nar to Ecko" from Brief Interviews with Hideous Men was adapted by composer Eric Moe[58] into a 50-minute operatic piece, to be performed with accompanying video projections.[59] The piece was described as having "subversively inscribed classical music into pop culture".[60]

Infinite Jest was performed once as a stage play by Germany’s experimental theater Hebbel am Ufer. The play was staged in various locations throughout Berlin, and the action took place over a 24-hour period.[61]

"Good Old Neon", from Oblivion: Stories, was adapted and performed by Ian Forester at the 2011 Hollywood Fringe Festival, produced by the Los Angeles independent theater company Needtheater.[62]

Death[edit]

Wallace's father said that David had suffered from major depressive disorder for more than twenty years and that antidepressant medication had allowed him to be productive.[19] Wallace experienced severe side effects from the medication[20] and in June 2007 stopped taking phenelzine, his primary antidepressant drug, on his doctor’s advice.[19] The depression recurred, and he tried other treatments, including electroconvulsive therapy. Eventually he went back on phenelzine but found it ineffective.[20] On September 12, 2008, Wallace wrote a two-page suicide note, arranged part of the manuscript for The Pale King and hanged himself from a rafter of his house.[63] He was 46.

Memorial gatherings were held at Pomona College, Amherst College, the University of Arizona, Illinois State University, and on October 23, 2008, at New York University (NYU). The eulogists at NYU included his sister, Amy Wallace Havens; his literary agent, Bonnie Nadell; Gerry Howard, editor of his first two books; Colin Harrison, an editor at Harper's Magazine; Michael Pietsch, editor of Infinite Jest and later works; Deborah Treisman, fiction editor at The New Yorker magazine; and the writers Don DeLillo, Zadie Smith, George Saunders, Mark Costello, Donald Antrim, and Jonathan Franzen.[64][65][66]

Works[edit]

Main article: David Foster Wallace bibliography

Awards and honors[edit]

  • Pulitzer Prize nomination for "The Pale King", 2012
  • Inclusion of "Good Old Neon" in The O. Henry Prize Stories 2002
  • John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Fellowship, 1997–2002
  • Lannan Foundation Residency Fellow, July–August 2000
  • Named to Usage Panel, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language 4th Ed. et seq., 1999
  • Inclusion of "The Depressed Person" in Prize Stories 1999: The O. Henry Awards
  • Illinois State University, Outstanding University Researcher, 1998 and 1999[67]
  • Aga Khan Prize for Fiction for the story "Brief Interviews With Hideous Men #6", 1997
  • Time magazine's Best Books of the Year (Fiction), 1996
  • Salon Book Award (Fiction), 1996
  • Lannan Literary Award (Fiction), 1996
  • Inclusion of "Here and There" in Prize Stories 1989: The O. Henry Awards
  • Whiting Award, 1987

References[edit]

  1. ^Grossman, Lev; Richard Lacayo (October 16, 2005). "All-TIME 100 Novels". Time. Retrieved August 5, 2015. 
  2. ^Noland, Claire; Joel Rubin (September 14, 2008). "Writer David Foster Wallace Found Dead". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 5, 2015. 
  3. ^"Jest Fest", LA Weekly, November 14, 2006.
  4. ^Franklin, Ruth (September 14, 2012). "Reader: Keep Up! The Identity Crisis of Zadie Smith". New Republic. Retrieved September 21, 2014. 
  5. ^"David Foster Wallace: An elegy by Jonathan Franzen". The University of Arizona Poetry Center. November 30, 2010. Retrieved September 21, 2014. 
  6. ^"Elizabeth Wurtzel on Depression and David Foster Wallace". New York Magazine. September 21, 2008. Retrieved September 21, 2014. 
  7. ^George Saunders (January 2, 2010). "Living in the Memory: A Celebration of the Great Writers Who Died in the Past Decade — David Foster Wallace (1962-2008)". The Guardian. Retrieved September 21, 2014. 
  8. ^"David Foster Wallace, The Pale King, Roundtable Discussion". The Daily Beast. Retrieved September 21, 2014. 
  9. ^Boswell and Burn, eds., p. 94.
  10. ^Malcolm Knox (November 2008). "Everything & More: The Work of David Foster Wallace". The Monthly. 
  11. ^Patrick Arden. "David Foster Wallace warms up". patrickarden.com. 
  12. ^David Zahl (August 20, 2012). "David Foster Wallace Went to Church Constantly?". Mockingbird. 
  13. ^Wallace-Havens, Amy (August 23, 2009). "Amy Wallace-Havens on Her Brother". To the Best of Our Knowledge (Interview). Interview with Anne Strainchamps. Woods Hole, Massachusetts: WCAI. Retrieved December 3, 2014. 
  14. ^"Our Alumni, Amherst College". Cms.amherst.edu. November 17, 2007. Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  15. ^"In Memoriam: David Foster Wallace '85, Amherst College". Amherst.edu. September 14, 2008. Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  16. ^ abHughes, Evan (October 9, 2011), "Just Kids Jeffrey Eugenides insists his new novel is not a roman à clef", New York Magazine.
  17. ^ abcWilliams, John (September 12, 2012). "God, Mary Karr and Ronald Reagan: D.T. Max on David Foster Wallace". New York Times Arts Beat blog. 
  18. ^ abcBruce Weber (September 14, 2008). "David Foster Wallace, Influential Writer, Dies at 46". The New York Times. Retrieved April 2, 2010. 
  19. ^ abcdeLipsky, Dave (October 30, 2008). "The Lost Years & Last Days of David Foster Wallace". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on May 3, 2009. Retrieved April 2, 2012. 
  20. ^Max, DT (2012). Every Love Story is a Ghost Story. Viking. 
  21. ^ abD. T. Max (March 9, 2009). "The Unfinished". The New Yorker. 
  22. ^James, Caryn (March 1, 1987). "Wittgenstein Is Dead and Living in Ohio – The Broom of the System,". The New York Times. Retrieved March 23, 2017. 
  23. ^Wallace, David Foster (Fall 1997). "Brief Interviews with Hideous Men". The Paris Review (144). Retrieved 23 March 2017. 
  24. ^Bissell, Tom (April 26, 2009). "Great and Terrible Truths". The New York Times. Retrieved December 8, 2010. 
  25. ^McGuinness, William (May 8, 2013). "David Foster Wallace's Brilliant 'This Is Water' Commencement Address Is Now a Great Short Film". The Huffington Post. Retrieved May 9, 2013. 
  26. ^Neyfakh, Leon (September 17, 2008). "Remembering David Foster Wallace: 'David Would Never Stop Caring' Says Lifelong Agent". Bay Ledger News Zone. 
  27. ^Neyfakh, Leon (September 19, 2008). "Infinite Jest Editor Michael Pietsch of Little, Brown on David Foster Wallace". The New York Observer,. 
  28. ^Michiko Kakutani (March 31, 2011). "Maximized Revenue, Minimized Existence". The New York Times. Retrieved April 2, 2012. 
  29. ^"Unfinished novel by Wallace coming next year". USA Today. Associated Press. March 1, 2009. Retrieved April 2, 2012. 
  30. ^Willa Paskin (April 5, 2011). "David Foster Wallace's The Pale King Gets Thoughtful, Glowing Reviews". New York Magazine. Retrieved April 2, 2012. 
  31. ^Wallace, David Foster. "E Unibus Pluram: Television and U.S. Fiction". Review of Contemporary Fiction. 13 (2): 151–194. 
  32. ^"A Reader's Companion to Infinite Jest". Rci.rutgers.edu. Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  33. ^"Charlie Rose – Jennifer Harbury & Robert Torricelli / David Foster Wallace". YouTube. Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  34. ^D. T. Max (December 2012). "A Meaningful Life". Untitled Books. Archived from the original on February 17, 2015. Retrieved September 21, 2014. 
  35. ^Travis W. Stern, Dr Robert L. McLaughlin (Spring 2000). ""I Am in Here": Fragmentation and the Individual in David Foster Wallace's Infinite Jest". Retrieved September 21, 2014. 
  36. ^Feeney, Matt (April 12, 2011). "Infinite Attention – David Foster Wallace and being bored out of your mind". Slate Magazine. Retrieved September 21, 2014. 
  37. ^D. T. Max (January 7, 2009). "David Foster Wallace's Struggle to Surpass Infinite Jest". The New Yorker. Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  38. ^Krajeski, Jenna. This is Water, The New Yorker, September 22, 2008.
  39. ^"David Foster Wallace on Life and Work". The Wall Street Journal. September 19, 2008. 
  40. ^Wallace, David Foster (April 13, 2000). "The Weasel, Twelve Monkeys and The Shrub". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on May 19, 2009. Retrieved April 2, 2012.  "The Weasel, Twelve Monkeys and The Shrub" was parodied in the Salon.com article "David Foster Wallace: Ain't McCain Grand".
  41. ^Wallace, David Foster (October 25, 2001). "9/11: The View From the Midwest". Rolling Stone. Jann Wenner (880). 
  42. ^Wallace, David Foster (January 1996). "Shipping Out"(PDF). Harper's Magazine. 
  43. ^Wallace, David Foster (April 2005) "Host"The Atlantic Monthly
  44. ^http://www.columbia.edu/~col8/lobsterarticle.pdf
  45. ^Hoffmann, Lukas (2016). Postirony: The Nonfictional Literature of David Foster Wallace and Dave Eggers. Bielefeld: transcript. ISBN 978-3-8376-3661-1. 
  46. ^Max, D. T. (2012-11-14). "D.F.W.'s Nonfiction: Better with Age". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved 2016-02-21. 
  47. ^Dean, Michelle. "A Supposedly True Thing Jonathan Franzen Said About David Foster Wallace". The Awl. Retrieved 25 December 2016. 
  48. ^Cook, John. "There Is No Such Thing as a 'Larger Truth': This American Life's Rich History of Embellishment". Gawker. Retrieved 25 December 2016. 
  49. ^Cohen, Patricia (March 9, 2010). "David Foster Wallace Papers Are Bought". The New York Times. Retrieved April 2, 2010. 
  50. ^"David Foster Wallace Conference Program 2015". Retrieved July 23, 2015. 
  51. ^The International David Foster Wallace Society.
  52. ^"The DFW Society", The Howling Fantods, January 2, 2017.
  53. ^Lee, Chris (January 19, 2009). "John Krasinski, 'Brief Interviews With Hideous Men'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 2, 2012. 
  54. ^"2015 Sarasota Film Festival Awards". Bradenton Herald. 19 April 2015. Retrieved 11 September 2015. 
  55. ^The Decemberists - Calamity Song. YouTube. August 16, 2011. 
  56. ^""Entrevistas repulsivas en la Fundación Tomás Eloy Martínez", 01/11/11". Clarin.com. Retrieved September 21, 2014. 

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