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Ap Essays Evolution Answers

ANSWERS AP ESSAYS EVOLUTION1. Evolution is one of the major unifying concepts of modern biology.A) Explain the mechanisms that lead to evolutionary change.B) Describe how scientists use each of the following as evidence for evolution.1. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics2. Comparative biochemistry3. The fossil recordANSWER:A) max 7 ptsThe Big Picture:1 pt- punctuated equilibrium, mass extinction, etc1 pt- definition of evolution- change through time1 pt- mutation- change in gene yields genetic variation1 pt- natural selection/selective pressure (Darwin)1 pt- genetic variation exists1 pt- over production1 pt- competition – survival of fittest (best genes)1 pt- survivors reproduce (best genes to offspring)1 pt- adaptive/non adaptive nature of variationSpecific mechanisms: (1 pt- list, no elaborations/ 1 pt- elaboration of mechanisms)Population level mechanisms:1 pt + 1 pt – genetic drift/change in allele frequencies in small pop/ founder effect/bottleneck effect1 pt- migration/gene flow in populations1 pt- non-random mating/inbreedingopt 1- Hardy-Weinberg disruption leads to evolution1 pt + 1 pt- speciation: prezygotic/postzygotic isolating mechanisms(ex. seasonal/behavioral/temporal)1 pt- chromosomal abnormalities/polyploidy/change in chromosome number1 pt- development of genetic variation through: recombination/x-over/indep segregation/ meiosisB) max 6 pts- 2 pts for each part1. bacterial resistance1 pt- genetic variation/mutants1 pt- selection for resistance1 pt- survival to reproduce1 pt- transduction/transformation/ “sex” reprod-conjugation/ DNA plasmid transfer2. Comp biochemistry1 pt- common biochemical pathways (as evidence for evolution)1 pt- respiration- ex. Electron flow, proton pump, chemiosmosis, Krebs, citric acid cycle1 pt- ATP, etc1 pt- photosynthesis- light Rxn, Calvin1 pt- protein sythesis1 pt- proteins- ex. amino acid sequences, isoenzymes, cyctochrome C, hemoglobin (addn’l pt for elaboration), insulin1 pt- cell structure based on similarity in molecular compositionMolecular structure commonality:1 pt- DNA base sequence/homology/hybridization ( 1 addn’l pt for explanation)1 pt- RNA base sequence/homology/hybridization ( 1 addn’l pt for explanation)3. fossil record1 pt- stratification of fossils as evidence of change1 pt + 1 pt- examples with description of change: humans, horses, vascular plants, shellfish

Кто это? - спросил. - Сьюзан Флетчер, - ответил Бринкерхофф. Человек-гигант удивленно поднял брови.

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