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Ap Biology Cephalization Essay

AP Bio Chapter 49 Nervous system

weblike system of neurons, usually in RADIAL symmetric animals
ropelike bundle of neuron fibers tightly wraped in connective tissue
evolutionary trend towards concentration of sensory equiptment at the anterior end of the body
cluster of nerve bodies in the central nervous system
important features in hydra (cnidarian)
radial nerves connecting to central nerve ring
important features in sea star (echinoderm)
small brain, longitudinal nerve chords, simplest central nervous system
important features in planarian (flatworm)
important features in leech (annelid)
important features in insect (athropod)
simple sense organs, no cephalization
important features in chiton (mollusc)
most sophisticated nervous system in invertabrates, brain
important features in squid (mollusc)
brain, central nervous system, spinal chord
important features in salamender (vertebrate)
Which phylum has a nerve net
first phylum to show cephalization
two components of the central nervous system
hot stove, contract thigh muscles
Give two examples of reflex responses
bodys automatic responses to certain stimuli
supplies brain with nutrients and hormones, and carries away waste, cushions the brain and spinal chord by circulating between layers of connective tissue surround cns
function of cerebrospinal fluid in mammals
ventricles and central canal
where is cerebrospinal fluid located
narrow cavity in the center of the spinal chord that is continuous with the fluid filled ventricles in the brain, developed from hallow embryonic nerve chord
space in the brain filled with cerebrospinal fluid
bundled axons with myelin sheaths, giving them whitish appearance, lies on outside of spinal chord, LINKS CNS TO SENSORY AND MOTOR NEURONS OF PNS, inside in brain to SIGNAL BETWEEN NEURONS OF THE BRAIN
neuron cell bodies, dendrites, unmyelinated axons, surface of brain
What are the specialized support cells that have other
functions, including myelination, structural support, and protection
cranial nerves, ganglia, spinal nerves
What makes up the peripheral nervous system
transmit information to and from CNS, regulating movement
sensory information going to CNS from PNS
information traveling from CNS to PNS
Which branch is sometimes called the voluntary nervous system because it is subject to conscious control
Which one is often termed involuntary
What would be the effect of stimulation by the sympathetic nervous system on heart rate
Which division of your autonomic nervous system would likely be activated if you learned that an exam you had forgotten about
would start in 5 minutes
connect the brain with locations mostly in organs of head and upper body
run between spinal chord and parts of body below the head
motor system and autonomic nervous system
makes up efferent branch of PNS
parasympathetic division promotes _____ reactions
preganglionic neurons use same neurotransmitter and function similarly in each division. post ganglionic neurons have opposing functions and use different neurotransmitters
para and sympathetic divisions use same neurotransmitters at axon terminals of preganglionic neurons, but different transmitters at the axon terminals of postganglionic neurons. How does this correlate with the function of axons bringing signals into and out of ganglia
set of structures that form the lower part of the brain
control sleep and arousal
coordinates movement and balance, monitors commands issued by cerebrum, perception, learning, hand-eye coordination
main input center for sensory information going into cerebrum, sorts information, regulate emotion and arousal
control of homeostasis, thermostat, hunger, thirst, source of hormones, sexual and mating behaviors, fight or flight response, pleasure
releases pituitary hormones, part of diencephalanon
functions in homeostasis, coordination of movement, conduction of information to and from higher brain centers. affect tension, alertness, appetite and motivation
information processing, planning and learning movement sequences, perception, voluntary movement, learning
when you wave your right hand, which part of brain initiates the action
alcohol diminishes function of cerebellum
when a police officer asks a drunk driver to touch nose, what can we deduce from this test about alcohols effect on a particular part of the brain
speech, taste, reading, somatosensory information (touch, pain, pressure, temperature)
used in vision processing
provides evidence that the portion of the brain affected by the damage is important for the normal activity that is blocked or altered
how is the study of individuals with damage to a particular part of the brain used to provide insight into the normal function of that region
brocas area is located near the part of the primary motor cortex which controls muscles in the face, wernicke's is located near the part of the temporal lobe that is involved in hearing
how is the function of broca and wernicke's area related to the activity of the surrounding portion of the cerebral cortex
increase in number of synapses, or increase in strength of synapses
two mechanisms by which the flow of information between two neurons in adults is increased
consciousness is activity from multiple parts of brain, so localized damage will not have a specific effect
why are people who have localized brain damage not good for studying consciousness
schizophrenia effects can be mimicked by a drug, reward system is comprised of dopamine releasing neurons, parkinsons results from death of dopamine releasing cells
how is dopamine activity related to schizophrenia, addiction, and parkinsons
wakefulness is regulated by the RETICULAR function which is present in the
communication between left and right cerebral cortices
regulation of temperature, hunger, thirst
additional outer layer of neurons in the cerebral cortex that is unique to animals
patients with damage to wernicke's area have diffulicity
sympathetic division of autonomic portion of PNS
relaxes bronchi, inhibits bladder emptying, stimulates glucose release, accelerates heartrate
functions in short term memory, long term memory, foot-tapping rhythm, breath holding

Ap bio 2007 essay

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