1 Fautilar

Assignment On Sale Of Goods Act 1957

INTRODUCTION

Not everyone who agrees to buy or sell goods is fortunate enough to find that the transaction turns out to be good. Those who are dissapointed by the transaction may seek the help of law. This law is known as Sales of goods Act. Sale of Goods is one of very old mercantile law.

The objective of learning this topic is to cover up the main types of contracts commonly entered into by everybody. We as a consumer should know the important of learning basic principles relating in the Sale of Goods Act in Malaysia because only law can make us satisfied on sale or buy goods.

The Sale of Goods legislation is aimed to offer protection to the consumer and the main purpose of a contract involving goods is the transfer of ownership. Sale of Goods Act 1957 were applied in Malaysia except in the states of Penang, Malacca, Sabah and Sarawak. Section 1 of the Sale of Goods Act 1957 provides that the Act shall have effect within the Malay States only. The position in Penang, Malacca, Sabah and Sarawak is governed by the English Sale of Goods Act 1983 .

The Sale of Goods Act is complimentary to Contract Act. Basic provisions of Contract Act apply to contract of Sale of Goods also. Basic requirements of contract i.e. offer and acceptance, legally enforceable agreement, mutual consent, parties competent to contract, free consent, lawful object, consideration etc. apply to contract of Sale of Goods also.

ESSENTIAL OF CONTRACT OF SALE

A contract of sale of goods is a contract whereby the seller transfers or agrees to transfer the property in goods to the buyer for a price. There may be a contract of sale between one part-owner and another. There must be two parties which is buyer and a seller to effect a contract of sale and they must be competent to contract. “Buyer” means a person who buys or agrees to buy goods. “Seller” means a person who sells or agrees to sell goods. These two terms are complementary.[1]

Where under a contract of sale the property...

View Full Essay

You are here:  CommonLII >> Databases >> Malaysian Legislation >> Sale of Goods Act 1957 (Revised 1989)Database Search | Name Search | Noteup | Download | Help

Sale of Goods Act 1957 (Revised 1989)

Sale of Goods 1

LAWS OF MALAYSIA

REPRINT

Act 382

SALE OF GOODS ACT 1957

Incorporating all amendments up to 1 January 2006 PUBLISHED BY

THE COMMISSIONER OF LAW REVISION, MALAYSIA

UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE REVISION OF LAWS ACT 1968 IN COLLABORATION WITH

PERCETAKAN NASIONAL MALAYSIA BHD

2006

SALE OF GOODS ACT 1957

First enacted ... ... ... ... ... ... 1957 (F.M. Ord. No. 1 of 1957)

Revised ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1989 (Act 382 w.e.f. 21 September 1989)

PREVIOUS REPRINT

First Reprint ... ... ... ... ... 2001

2

3

LAWS OF MALAYSIA

Act 382

SALE OF GOODS ACT 1957

ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS

CHAPTER I

PRELIMINARY

Section

1. Short title and application

2. Interpretation

3. Application of Contracts Act 1950 CHAPTER II

FORMATION OF THE CONTRACT

Contract of sale

4. Sale and agreement to sell Formalities of the contract

5. Contract of how sale made Subject Matter of Contract

6. Existing or future goods

7. Goods perishing before making of contract

8. Goods perishing before sale but after agreement to sell The price

9. Ascertainment of price

10. Agreement to sell at valuation 4 Laws of Malaysia ACT 382

Conditions and warranties

Section

11. Stipulations as to time

12. Condition and warranty

13. When condition to be treated as warranty

14. Implied undertaking as to tittle, etc.

15. Sale by description

16. Implied condition as to quality or fitness

17. Sale by sample CHAPTER III

EFFECTS OF THE CONTRACT

Transfer of property as between seller and buyer

18. Goods must be ascertained

19. Property passes when intended to pass

20. Specific goods in a deliverable state

21. Specific goods to be put into a deliverable state

22. Specific goods in a deliverable state when the seller has to do anything thereto in order to ascertain price

23. Sale of unascertained goods and appropriation

24. Goods sent on approval or "on sale or return"

25. Reservation of right of disposal

26. Risk prima facie passes with property

27. Sale by person not the owner

28. Sale by one of joint owners

29. Sale by person in possession under voidable contract

30. Seller or buyer in possession after sale CHAPTER IV

PERFORMANCE OF THE CONTRACT

31. Duties of seller and buyer

32. Payment and delivery are concurrent conditions

33. Delivery Sale of Goods 5

Section

34. Effect of part delivery

35. Buyer to apply for delivery

36. Rules as to delivery

37. Delivery of wrong quantity

38. Instalment deliveries

39. Delivery to carrier or wharfinger

40. Risk where goods are delivered at distant place

41. Buyer's right of examining the goods

42. Acceptance

43. Buyer not bound to return rejected goods

44. Liability of buyer for neglecting or refusing delivery of goods CHAPTER V

RIGHTS OF UNPAID SELLER AGAINST THE GOODS

45. Unpaid seller defined

46. Unpaid seller's rights Unpaid seller's lien

47. Seller's lien

48. Part delivery

49. Termination of lien Stoppage in transit

50. Right of stoppage in transit

51. Duration of transit

52. How stoppage in transit is effected Transfer by buyer and seller

53. Effect of sub-sale or pledge by buyer

54. Sale not generally rescinded by lien stoppage in transit 6 Laws of Malaysia ACT 382

CHAPTER VI

SUITS FOR BREACH OF THE CONTRACT

Section

55. Suit for price

56. Damages for non-acceptance

57. Damages for non-delivery

58. Specific performance

59. Remedy for breach of warranty

60. Repudiation of contract before due date

61. Interest by way of damages and special damages CHAPTER VII

MISCELLANEOUS

62. Exclusion of implied terms and conditions

63. Reasonable time a question of fact

64. Savings Sale of Goods 7

LAWS OF MALAYSIA

Act 382

SALE OF GOODS ACT 1957

An Act relating to the sale of goods.

[Federal Territory, Johore, Kedah, Kelantan, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Selangor and Terengganu

--23 April 1957,

Malacca and Penang--23 February 1990]

CHAPTER I

PRELIMINARY

Short title and application

1. (1) This Act may be cited as the Sale of Goods Act 1957. (2) This Act shall apply to the States of *Penisular Malaysia. Interpretation

2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires-- "buyer" means a person who buys or agrees to buy goods; "delivery" means voluntary transfer of possession from one person to another; goods are said to be in a "deliverable state" when they are in such state that the buyer would under the contract be bound to take delivery of them;

"document of title to goods" includes a bill of lading, dock warrant, warehouse keeper's certificate, wharfinger's certificate, railway receipt, warrant or order for delivery of goods and any other document used in the ordinary course of business as proof of the possession or control of goods, or authorizing or purporting to authorize, either by endorsement or by delivery, the possessor of the document to transfer or receive goods thereby represented; *NOTE--All references to "West Malaysia" shall be construed as reference to "Peninsular Malaysia" �see the Interpretation (Amendment) Act 1997 [Act A996], subsection 5(2). 8 Laws of Malaysia ACT 382

"fault" means wrongful act or default;

"future goods" means goods to be manufacture or produced or acquired by the seller after the making of the contract of sale; "goods" means every kind of movable property other than actionable claims and money; and includes stock and shares, growing crops, grass and things attached to or forming part of the land which are agreed to be severed before sale or under the contract of sale;

a person is said to be "insolvent" who has ceased to pay his debts in the ordinary course of business, or cannot pay his debts as they become due, whether he has committed an act of bankruptcy or not;

"mercantile agent" means a mercantile agent having in the customary course of business as such agent authority either to sell goods, or to consign goods for the purposes of sale, or to buy goods, or to raise money on the security of goods; "price" means the money consideration for a sale of goods; "property" means the general property in goods, and not merely a special property;

"quality of goods" includes their state or condition; "seller" means a person who sells or agrees to sell goods; "specific goods" means goods identified and agreed upon at the time a contract of sale is made; and any expression used but not defined in this Act which is defined in the Contracts Act 1950 [Act 136], shall have the meaning assigned to it in that Act.

Application of Contracts Act 1950

3. The Contracts Act 1950, in so far as they are not inconsistent with the express provisions of this Act shall continue to apply to contracts for the sale of goods.

Sale of Goods 9

CHAPTER II

FORMATION OF THE CONTRACT

Contract of sale

Sale and agreement to sell

4. (1) A contract of sale of goods is a contract whereby the seller transfers or agrees to transfer the property in goods to the buyer for a price. There may be a contract of sale between one part- owner and another.

(2) A contract of sale may be absolute or conditional. (3) Where under a contract of sale the property in the goods is transferred from the seller to the buyer, the contract is called a sale, but where the transfer of the property in the goods is to take place at a future time or subject to some condition thereafter to be fulfilled, the contract is called an agreement to sell. (4) An agreement to sell becomes a sale when the time elapses or the conditions are fulfilled subject to which the property in the goods is to be transferred.

Formalities of the contract

Contract of how sale made

5. (1) A contract of sale is made by an offer to buy or sell goods for a price and the acceptance of such offer. The contract may provide for the immediate delivery of the goods or immediate payment of the price or both, for the delivery or payment by instalments, or that the delivery or payment or both shall be postponed.

(2) Subject to any law for the time being in force, a contract of sale may be made writing or by word of mouth, or partly in writing and partly by word of mouth or may be implied from the conduct of the parties.

10 Laws of Malaysia ACT 382

Subject matter of contract

Existing or future goods

6. (1) The goods which form the subject of a contract of sale may be either existing goods, owned or possessed by the seller, or future goods.

(2) There may be a contract for the sale of goods the acquisition of which by the seller depends upon a contingency which may or may not happen.

(3) Where by a contract of sale the seller purports to effect a present sale of future goods, the contract operates as an agreement to sell the goods.

Goods perishing before making of contract

7. Where there is a contract for the sale of specific goods, the contract is void if the goods without the knowledge of the seller have, at the time when the contract was made, perished or become so damaged as no longer to answer to their description in the contract.

Goods perishing before sale but after agreement to sell

8. Where is an agreement to sell specific goods, and subsequently the good, without any fault on the part of the seller or buyer, perish, or become so damaged as no longer to answer to their description in the agreement, before the risk passes to the buyer, the agreement is thereby avoided.

The price

Ascertainment of price

9. (1) The price in a contract of sale may be fixed by the contract or may be left to be fixed in manner thereby agreed or may be determined by the course of dealing between the parties. Sale of Goods 11

(2) Where the price is not determined in accordance with the foregoing provisions, the buyer shall pay the seller a reasonable price. What is a reasonable price is a question of fact dependent on the circumstances of each particular case.

Agreement to sell at valuation

10. (1) Where there is an agreement to sell goods on the terms that the price is to be fixed by the valuation of a third party and such third party cannot or does not make such valuation, the agreement is thereby avoided:

Provided that if the goods or any part thereof have been delivered to, and appropriated by, the buyer, he shall pay a reasonable price therefor.

(2) Where such third party is prevented from making the valuation by the fault of the seller or buyer, the party not in fault may maintain a suit for damages against the party in fault. Conditions and warranties

Stipulations as to time

11. Unless a different intention appears from the terms of the contract, stipulations as to time of payment are not deemed to be of the essence of the contract of sale. Whether any other stipulation as to time is of the essence of the contract or not depends on the terms of the contract.

Condition and warranty

12. (1) A stipulation in a contract of sale with reference to goods which are the subject thereof may be a condition or warranty. (2) A condition is a stipulation essential to the main purpose of the contract, the breach of which gives rise to a right to treat the contract as repudiated.

(3) A warranty is a stipulation collateral to the main purpose of the contract, the breach of which gives rise to a claim for damages but not to a right to reject the goods and treat the contract as repudiated.

12 Laws of Malaysia ACT 382

(4) Whether a stipulation in a contract of sale is a condition or a warranty depends in each case on the construction of the contract. The stipulation may be a condition, though called a warranty in the contract.

When condition to be treated as warranty

13. (1) Where a contract of sale is subject to any condition to be fulfilled by the seller the buyer may waive the condition or elect to treat the breach of the condition as a breach of warranty and not as a ground for treating the contract as repudiated. (2) Where a contract of sale is not severable and the buyer has accepted the goods or part thereof, or where the contract is for specific goods the property in which has passed to the buyer, the breach of any condition to be fulfilled by the seller can only be treated as a breach of warranty, and not as a ground for rejecting the goods and treating the contract as repudiated, unless there is a term of the contract express or implied to that effect. (3) Nothing in this section shall affect the case of any condition or warranty the fulfilment of which is excused by law by reason of impossibility or otherwise.

Implied undertaking as to title, etc.

14. In a contract of sale, unless the circumstances of the contract are such as to show a different intention, there is-- (a) an implied condition on the part of the seller, that, in the case of a sale, he has a right to sell the goods, and that, in the case of an agreement to sell, he will have a right to sell the goods at the time when the property is to pass; (b) an implied warranty that the buyer shall have and enjoy quiet possession of the goods;

(c) an implied warranty that the goods shall be free from any charge or encumbrance in favour of any third party not declared or known to the buyer before or at the time when the contract is made.

Sale of Goods 13

Sale by description

15. Where there is a contract for the sale of goods by description there is an implied condition that the goods shall correspond with the description; and, if the sale is by sample as well as by description, it is not sufficient that the bulk of the goods corresponds with the sample if the goods do not also correspond with the description. Implied condition as to quality or fitness

16. (1) Subject to this Act and of any other law for the time being in force, there is no implied warranty or condition as to the quality or fitness for any particular purpose of goods supplied under a contract of sale, except as follows:

(a) Where the buyer, expressly or by implication makes known to the seller the particular purpose for which the goods are required, so as to show that the buyer relies on the seller's skill or judgment, and the goods are of a description which it is in the course of the seller's business to supply (whether he is the manufacturer or producer or not) there is an implied condition that the goods shall be reasonably fit for such purpose:

Provided that, in the case of a contract for the sale of a specified article under its patent or other trade name there is no implied condition as to its fitness for any particular purpose.

(b) Where goods are bought by description from a seller who deals in goods of that description (whether he is the manufacturer or producer or not) there is an implied condition that the goods shall be of merchantable quality: Provided that if the buyer has examined the goods, there shall be no implied condition as regards defects which such examined ought to have revealed.

(2) An implied warranty or condition as to quality or fitness for a particular purpose may be annexed by the usage of trade. (3) An express warranty or condition does not negative a warranty or condition implied by this Act unless inconsistent therewith. 14 Laws of Malaysia ACT 382

Sale by sample

17. (1) A contract of sale is a contract for sale by sample where there is a term in the contract express or implied to that effect. (2) In the case of a contract for sale by sample there is an implied condition--

(a) that the bulk shall correspond with the sample in quality; (b) that the buyer shall have a reasonable opportunity of comparing the bulk with the sample;

(c) that the goods shall be free from any defect rendering them unmerchantable which would not be apparent on reasonable examination of the sample.

CHAPTER III

EFFECTS OF THE CONTRACT

Transfer of property as between seller and buyer

Goods must be ascertained

18. Where there is a contract for the sale of unascertained goods, no property in the goods is transferred to the buyer unless and until the goods are ascertained.

Property passes when intended to pass

19. (1) Where there is a contract for the sale of specific or ascertained goods the property in them is transferred to the buyer at such time as the parties to the contract intend it to be transferred. (2) For the purpose of ascertaining the intention of the parties regard shall be had to the terms of the contract, the conduct of the parties and the circumstances of the case.

(3) Unless a different intention appears the rules contained in sections 20 to 24 are rules for ascertaining the intention of the parties as to the time at which the property in the goods is to pass to the buyer.

Sale of Goods 15

Specific goods in a deliverable state

20. Where there is an unconditional contract for the sale of specific goods in a deliverable state the property in the goods passes to the buyer when the contract is made, and it is immaterial whether the time of payment of the price, or the time of delivery of the goods, or both, is postponed.

Specific goods to be put into a deliverable state

21. Where there is a contract for the sale of specific goods and the seller is bound to do something to the goods for the purpose of putting them into a deliverable state, the property does not pass until such thing is done and the buyer has notice thereof. Specific goods in a deliverable state when the seller has to do anything thereto in order to ascertain price

22. Where there is a contract for the sale of specific goods in a deliverable state, but the seller is bound to weigh, measure, test, or do some other act or thing with reference to the goods for the purpose of ascertaining the price, the property does not pass until such act or thing is done and the buyer has notice thereof. Sale of unascertained goods and appropriation

23. (1) Where there is a contract for the sale of unascertained or future goods by description and goods of that description and in a deliverable state are unconditionally appropriated to the contract, either by the seller with the assent of the buyer or by the buyer with the assent of the seller, the property in the goods thereupon passes to the buyer.

Such assent may be express or implied, and may be given either before or after the appropriation is made.

Delivery to carrier

(2) Where, in pursuance of the contract, the seller delivers the goods to the buyer or to a carrier or other bailee (whether named by the buyer or not) for the purpose of transmission to the buyer, and does not reserve the right of disposal, he is deemed to have unconditionally appropriated the goods to the contract. 16 Laws of Malaysia ACT 382

Goods sent on approval or "on sale or return"

24. When goods are delivered to the buyer on approval or "on sale or return", or other similar terms, the property therein passes to the buyer--

(a) when he signifies his approval or acceptance to the seller or does any other act adopting the transaction;

(b) if he does not signify his approval or acceptance to the seller but retains the goods without giving notice of rejection, then, if a time has been fixed for the return of goods, on the expiration of such time, and if no time has been fixed, on the expiration of a reasonable time. Reservation of right of disposal

25. (1) Where there is a contract for the sale of specific goods or where goods are subsequently appropriated to the contract the seller may by the terms of the contract or appropriation reserve the right of disposal of the goods until certain conditions are fulfilled. In such case, notwithstanding the delivery of the goods to the buyer or to a carrier or other bailee for the purpose of transmission to the buyer, the property in the goods does not pass to the buyer until the conditions imposed by the seller are fulfilled. (2) Where goods are shipped and by the bill of lading the goods are deliverable to the order of the seller or his agent, the seller is prima facie deemed to reserve the right of disposal. (3) Where the seller of goods draws on the buyer for the price and transmits the bill of exchange and bill of lading to the buyer together, to secure acceptance or payment of the bill of exchange, the buyer is bound to return the bill of lading if he does not honour the bill of exchange, and if he wrongfully retains the bill of lading the property in the goods does not pass to him.

Risk prima facie passes with property

26. Unless otherwise agreed, the goods remain at the seller's risk until the property therein is transferred to the buyer, but when the property therein is transferred to the buyer, the goods are at the buyer's risk whether delivery has been made or not: Provided that where delivery has been delayed through the fault of either buyer or seller, the goods are at the risk of the party in fault as regards any loss which might not have occurred but for such fault:

Sale of Goods 17

Provided also that nothing in this section shall affect the duties or liabilities of either seller or buyer as a bailee of the goods of the other party.

Sale by person not the owner

27. (1) Subject to this Act and of any other law for the time being in force, where goods are sold by a person who is not the owner thereof, and who does not sell them under the authority or with the consent of the owner, the buyer acquires no better title to the goods than the seller had, unless the owner of the goods is by his conduct precluded from denying the seller's authority to sell:

Provided that where a mercantile agent is, with the consent of the owner, in possession of the goods or of a document of title to the goods, any sale made by him when acting in the ordinary course of business of a mercantile agent shall be as valid as if he were expressly authorized by the owner of the goods to make the same; provided that the buyer acts in good faith and has not at the time of the contract of sale notice that the seller has no authority to sell.

Sale by one of joint owners

28. If one of several joint owners of goods has the sole possession of them by permission of the co-owners, the property in the goods is transferred to any person who buys them of such joint owner in good faith and has not at the time of the contract of sale notice that the seller has no authority to sell.

Sale by person in possession under voidable contract

29. Where the seller of goods has obtained possession thereof under a contract voidable under section 19 or 20 of the Contracts Act 1950, but the contract has not been rescinded at the time of the sale, the buyer acquires a good title to the goods provided he buys them in good faith and without notice of the seller's defect of title.

Seller or buyer in possession after sale

30. (1) Where a person, having sold goods, continues or is in possession of the goods or of the documents of title to the goods, the delivery or transfer by that person or by a mercantile agent acting for him, of the goods or documents of title under any sale, 18 Laws of Malaysia ACT 382

pledge or other disposition thereof to any person receiving the same in good faith and without notice of the previous sale shall have the same effect as if the person making the delivery or transfer were expressly authorized by the owner of the goods to make the same.

(2) Where a person, having bought or agreed to buy goods, obtains, with the consent of the seller, possession of the goods or the documents of title to the goods, the delivery or transfer by that person or by a mercantile agent acting for him of the goods or documents of title under any sale, pledge, or other disposition thereof to any person receiving the same in good faith and without notice of any lien or other right of the original seller in respect of the goods shall have effect as if such lien or right did not exist. CHAPTER IV

PERFORMANCE OF THE CONTRACT

Duties of seller and buyer

31. It is the duty of the seller to deliver the goods and of the buyer to accept and pay for them in accordance with the terms of the contract of sale.

Payment and delivery are concurrent conditions

32. Unless otherwise agreed, delivery of the goods and payment of the price are concurrent conditions, that is to say, the seller shall be ready and willing to give possession of the goods to the buyer in exchange for the price, and the buyer shall be ready and willing to pay the price in exchange for possession of the goods. Delivery

33. Delivery of goods sold may be made by doing anything which the parties agree shall be treated as delivery or which has the effect of putting the goods in the possession of the buyer or of any person authorized to hold them on his behalf. Sale of Goods 19

Effect of part delivery

34. A delivery of part of goods, in progress of the delivery of the whole, has the same effect for the purpose of passing the property in such goods, as a delivery of the whole; but a delivery of part of the goods with an intention of severing it from the whole does not operate as a delivery of the remainder.

Buyer to apply for delivery

35. Apart from any express contract, the seller of goods is not bound to deliver them until the buyer applies for delivery. Rules as to delivery

36. (1) Whether it is for the buyer to take possession of the goods or for the seller to send them to the buyer is a question depending in each case on the contract, express or implied, between the parties. Apart from any such contract, goods sold are to be delivered at the place at which they are at the time of the sale, and goods agreed to be sold are to be delivered at the place at which they are at the time of the agreement to sell, or, if not then in existence, at the place at which they are manufactured or produced. (2) Where under the contract of sale the seller is bound to send the goods to the buyer, but no time for sending them is fixed, the seller is bound to send them within a reasonable time. (3) Where the goods at the time of sale are in the possession of a third person, there is no delivery by seller to buyer unless and until such third person acknowledges to the buyer that he holds the goods on his behalf:

Provided that nothing in this section shall affect the operation of the issue or transfer of any document of title to goods. (4) Demand or tender of delivery may be treated as ineffectual unless made at a reasonable hour. What is a reasonable hour is a question of fact.

(5) Unless otherwise agreed, the expenses of and incidental to putting the goods into a deliverable state shall be borne by the seller.

20 Laws of Malaysia ACT 382

Delivery of wrong quantity

37. (1) Where the seller delivers to the buyer a quantity of goods less than he contracted to sell, the buyer may reject them, but if the buyer accepts the goods so delivered he shall pay for them at the contract rate.

(2) Where the seller delivers to the buyer a quantity of goods larger than he contracted to sell, the buyer may accept the goods included in the contract and reject the rest, or he may reject the whole. If the buyer accepts the whole of the goods so delivered he shall pay for them at the contract rate.

(3) Where the seller delivers to the buyer the goods he contracted to sell mixed with goods of a different description not included in the contract, the buyer may accept the goods which are in accordance with the contract and reject the rest, or may reject the whole.

(4) This section is subject to any usage of trade, special agreement or course of dealing between the parties.

Instalment deliveries

38. (1) Unless otherwise agreed the buyer of goods is not bound to accept delivery thereof by instalments.

(2) Where there is a contract for the sale of goods to be delivered by stated instalments which are to be separately paid for, and the seller makes no delivery or defective delivery in respect of one or more instalments, or the buyer neglects or refuses to take delivery of or pay for one or more instalments, it is a question in each case depending on the terms of the contract and the circumstances of the case, whether the breach of contract is a repudiation of the whole contract, or whether it is a severable breach giving rise to a claim for compensation but not to a right to treat the whole contract as repudiated.

Delivery to carrier or wharfinger

39. (1) Where in pursuance of a contract of sale, the seller is authorized or required to send the goods to the buyer, delivery of the goods to a carrier, whether named by the buyer or not, for the Sale of Goods 21

purpose of transmission to the buyer, or delivery of the goods to a wharfinger for safe custody, is prima facie deemed to be a delivery of the goods to the buyer.

(2) Unless otherwise authorized by the buyer, the seller shall make such contract with the carrier or wharfinger on behalf of the buyer as may be reasonable having regard to the nature of the goods and the other circumstances of the case. If the seller omits so to do, and the goods are lost or damaged in course of transit or whilst in the custody of the wharfinger, the buyer may decline to treat the delivery to the carrier or wharfinger as a delivery to himself, or may hold the seller responsible in damages. (3) Unless otherwise agreed, where goods are sent by the seller to the buyer by a route involving sea transit, in circumstances in which it is usual to insure, the seller shall give such notice to the buyer as may enable him to insure them during their sea transit, and if the seller fails so to do, the goods shall be deemed to be at his risk during such sea transit.

Risk where goods are delivered at distant place

40. When the seller of goods agrees to deliver them at his own risk at a place other than that where they are when sold, the buyer shall, nevertheless, unless otherwise agreed, take any risk of deterioration in the goods necessarily incident to the course of transit.

Buyer's right of examining the goods

41. (1) Where goods are delivered to the buyer which he has not previously examined, he is not deemed to have accepted them unless and until he has had a reasonable opportunity of examining them for the purpose of ascertaining whether they are in conformity with the contract.

(2) Unless otherwise agreed, when the seller tenders delivery of goods to the buyer, he is bound, on request, to afford the buyer a reasonable opportunity of examining the goods for the purpose of ascertaining whether they are in conformity with the contract.

22 Laws of Malaysia ACT 382

Acceptance

42. The buyer is deemed to have accepted the goods when he intimates to the seller that he has accepted them, or when the goods have been delivered to him and he does any act in relation to them which is inconsistent with the ownership of the seller, or when, after the lapse of a reasonable time, he retains the goods without intimating to the seller that he has rejected them. Buyer not bound to return rejected goods

43. Unless otherwise agreed, where goods are delivered to the buyer and he refuses to accept them, having the right so to do, he is not bound to return them to the seller, but it is sufficient if he intimates to the seller that he refuses to accept them. Liability of buyer for neglecting or refusing delivery of goods

44. When the seller is ready and willing to deliver the goods and requests the buyer to take delivery, and the buyer does not, within a reasonable time after such request, take delivery of the goods, he is liable to the seller for any loss occasioned by his neglect or refusal to take delivery, and also for a reasonable charge for the care and custody of the goods:

Provided that nothing in this section shall affect the rights of the seller where the neglect or refusal of the buyer to take delivery amounts to a repudiation of the contract.

CHAPTER V

RIGHTS OF UNPAID SELLER AGAINST THE GOODS

Unpaid seller defined

45. (1) The seller of goods is deemed to be an "unpaid seller" within the meaning of this Act--

(a) when the whole of the price has not been paid or tendered; (b) when a bill of exchange or other negotiable instrument has been received as conditional payment, and the condition on which it was received has not been fulfilled by reason of the dishonour of the instrument or otherwise.

Sale of Goods 23

(2) In this Chapter, the term "seller" includes any person who is in the position of a seller, as, for instance, an agent of the seller to whom the bill of lading has been indorsed, or a consignor or agent who has himself paid, or is directly responsible for, the price.

Unpaid seller's rights

46. (1) Subject to this Act and of any law for the time being in force, notwithstanding that the property in the goods may have passed to the buyer, the unpaid seller of goods, as such, has, by implication of law--

(a) a lien on the goods for the price while he is in possession of them;

(b) in case of the insolvency of the buyer a right of stopping the goods in transit after he has parted with the possession of them;

(c) a right of resale as limited by this Act.

(2) Where the property in goods has not passed to the buyer, the unpaid seller has, in addition to his other remedies, a right of withholding delivery similar to and co-extensive with his rights of lien and stoppage in transit where the property has passed to the buyer.

Unpaid seller's lien

Seller's lien

47. (1) Subject to this Act, the unpaid seller of goods who is in possession of them is entitled to retain possession of them until payment or tender of the price in the following cases, namely: (a) where the goods have been sold without any stipulation as to credit;

(b) where the goods have been sold on credit, but the term of credit has expired;

(c) where the buyer becomes insolvent.

(2) The seller may exercise his right of lien notwithstanding that he is in possession of the goods as agent or bailee for the buyer.

24 Laws of Malaysia ACT 382

Part delivery

48. Where an unpaid seller has made part delivery of the goods, he may exercise his right of lien on the remainder, unless such part delivery has been made under such circumstances as to show an agreement to waive the lien.

Termination of lien

49. (1) The unpaid seller of goods loses his lien thereon-- (a) when he delivers the goods to a carrier or other bailee for the purpose of transmission to the buyer without reserving the right of disposal of the goods;

(b) when the buyer or his agent lawfully obtains possession of the goods;

(c) by waiver thereof.

(2) The unpaid seller of goods, having a lien thereon, does not lose his lien by reason only that he has obtained a decree for the price of the goods.

Stoppage in transit

Right of stoppage in transit

50. Subject to this Act when the buyer of goods becomes insolvent the unpaid seller who has parted with the possession of the goods has the right of stopping them in transit, that is to say, he may resume possession of the goods as long as they are in the course of transit, and may retain them until payment or tender of the price.

Duration of transit

51. (1) Goods are deemed to be in course of transit from the time when they are delivered to a carrier or other bailee for the purpose of transmission to the buyer, until the buyer or his agent in that behalf takes delivery of them from such carrier or other bailee. Sale of Goods 25

(2) If the buyer or his agent in that behalf obtains delivery of the goods before their arrival at the appointed destination, the transit is at an end.

(3) If after the arrival of the goods at the appointed destination, the carrier or other bailee acknowledges to the buyer or his agent that he holds the goods on his behalf and continues in possession of them as bailee for the buyer or his agent, the transit is at an end and it is immaterial that a further destination for the goods may have been indicated by the buyer.

(4) If the goods are rejected by the buyer and the carrier or other bailee continues in possession of them, the transit is not deemed to be at an end, even if the seller has refused to receive them back.

(5) When the goods are delivered to a ship chartered by the buyer, it is a question depending on the circumstances of the particular case, whether they are in the possession of the master as a carrier or as agent of the buyer.

(6) Where the carrier or other bailee wrongfully refuses to deliver the goods to the buyer or his agent in that behalf, the transit is deemed to be at an end.

(7) Where part delivery of the goods has been made to the buyer or his agent in that behalf, the remainder of the goods may be stopped in transit, unless such part delivery has been given in such circumstances as to show an agreement to give up possession of the whole of the goods.

How stoppage in transit is effected

52. (1) The unpaid seller may exercise his right of stoppage in transit either by taking actual possession of the goods, or by giving notice of his claim to the carrier or other bailee in whose possession the goods are. Such notice may be given either to the person in actual possession of the goods or to his principal. In the latter case the notice, to be effectual, shall be given at such time and in such circumstances that the principal, by the exercise of reasonable diligence, may communicate it to his servant or agent in time to prevent a delivery to the buyer.

26 Laws of Malaysia ACT 382

(2) When notice of stoppage in transit is given by the seller to the carrier or other bailee in possession of the goods, he shall redeliver the goods to or according to the directions of the seller. The expenses of such redelivery shall be borne by the seller. Transfer by buyer and seller

Effect of sub-sale or pledge by buyer

53. (1) Subject to this Act the unpaid seller's right of lien or stoppage in transit is not affected by any sale or other disposition of the goods which the buyer may have made unless the seller has assented thereto:

Provided that where a document of title to goods has been issued or lawfully transferred to any person as buyer or owner of the goods and that person transfers the document to a person who takes the document in good faith and for consideration, then, if such last-mentioned transfer was by way of sale, the unpaid seller's right of lien or stoppage in transit is defeated, and, if such last-mentioned transfer was by way of pledge or other disposition for value, the unpaid seller's right of lien or stoppage in transit can only be exercised subject to the rights of the transferee. (2) Where the transfer is by way of pledge, the unpaid seller may require the pledgee to have the amount secured by the pledge satisfied in the first instance, as far as possible, out of any other goods or securities of the buyer in the hands of the pledgee and available against the buyer.

Sale not generally rescinded by lien or stoppage in transit

54. (1) Subject to this section, a contract of sale is not rescinded by the mere exercise by an unpaid seller of his right of lien or stoppage in transit.

(2) Where the goods are of a perishable nature, or where the unpaid seller who has exercised his right of lien or stoppage in transit gives notice to the buyer of his intention to resell, the unpaid seller may, if the buyer does not within a reasonable time pay or tender the price, resell the goods within a reasonable time and recover from the original buyer damages for any loss occasioned by his breach of contract; but the buyer shall not be entitled to any Sale of Goods 27

profit which may occur on the resale. If such notice is not given, the unpaid seller shall not be entitled to recover such damages and the buyer shall be entitled to the profit, if any, on the resale. (3) Where an unpaid seller who has exercised his right of lien or stoppage in transit resells the goods, the buyer acquires a good title thereto as against the original buyer, notwithstanding that no notice of the resale has been given to the original buyer. (4) Where the seller expressly reserves a right of resale in case the buyer should make default and, on the buyer making default, resells the goods, the original contract of sale is thereby rescinded, but without prejudice to any claim which the seller may have for damages.

CHAPTER VI

SUITS FOR BREACH OF THE CONTRACT

Suit for price

55. (1) Where under a contract of sale the property in the goods has passed to the buyer and the buyer wrongfully neglects or refuses to pay for the goods according to the terms of the contract, the seller may sue him for the price of the goods. (2) Where under a contract of sale the price is payable on a day certain irrespective of delivery and the buyer wrongfully neglects or refuses to pay such price, the seller may sue him for the price although the property in the goods has not passed and the goods have not been appropriated to the contract.

Damages for non-acceptance

56. Where the buyer wrongfully neglects or refuses to accept and pay for the goods the seller may sue him for damages for non-acceptance.

Damages for non-delivery

57. Where the seller wrongfully neglects or refuses to deliver the goods to the buyer, the buyer may sue the seller for damages for non-delivery.

28 Laws of Malaysia ACT 382

Specific performance

58. Subject to Chapter II of the Specific Relief Act 1950 [Act 137], in any suit for breach of contract to deliver specific or ascertained goods, the court may, if it thinks fit, on the application of the plaintiff, by its decree direct that the contract shall be performed specifically, without giving the defendant the option of retaining the goods on payment of damages. The decree may be unconditional, or upon such terms and conditions as to damages, payment of the price or otherwise, as the court may deem just, and the application of the plaintiff may be made at any time before the decree.

Remedy for breach of warranty

59. (1) Where there is a breach of warranty by the seller, or where the buyer elects or is compelled to treat any breach of a condition on the part of the seller as a breach of warranty, the buyer is not by reason only of such breach of warranty entitled to reject the goods; but he may--

(a) set up against the seller the breach of warranty in diminution or extinction of the price; or

(b) sue the seller for damages for breach of warranty. (2) The fact that a buyer has set up a breach of warranty in diminution of the price does not prevent him suing for the same breach of warranty if he has suffered further damage. Repudiation of contract before due date

60. Where either party to a contract of sale repudiates the contract before the date of delivery, the other party may either treat the contract as subsisting and wait till the date of delivery, or he may treat the contract as rescinded and sue for damages for the breach. Interest by way of damages and special damages

61. (1) Nothing in this Act shall affect the right of the seller or the buyer to recover interest or special damages in any case where by law interest or special damages may be recoverable, or to recover the money paid where the consideration for the payment of it has failed.

Sale of Goods 29

(2) In the absence of a contract to the contrary, the court may award interest at such rate as it thinks fit on the amount of the price--

(a) to the seller in a suit by him for the amount of the price, from the date of the tender of the goods or from the date on which the price was payable;

(b) to the buyer in a suit by him for the refund of the price in a case of breach of the contract on the part of the seller, from the date on which the payment was made. CHAPTER VII

MISCELLANEOUS

Exclusion of implied terms and conditions

62. Where any right, duty or liability would arise under a contract of sale by implication of law, it may be negatived or varied by express agreement or by the course of dealing between the parties, or by usage, if the usage is such as to bind both parties to the contract.

Reasonable time a question of fact

63. Where in this Act any reference is made to a reasonable time, the question what is a reasonable time is a question of fact. Savings

64. (1) Nothing in this Act shall affect or be deemed to affect any rule of law, not inconsistent with this Act.

(2) The rules in bankruptcy relating to contracts for the sale of goods shall continue to apply thereto notwithstanding anything contained in this Act.

(3) The provisions of this Act relating to contracts of sale do not apply to any transaction in the form of a contract of sale which is intended to operate by way of mortgage, pledge, charge or other security.

30 Laws of Malaysia ACT 382

LAWS OF MALAYSIA

Act 382

SALE OF GOODS ACT 1957

LIST OF AMENDMENTS

Amending law Short title In force from

L.N. 332/1958 Federal Constitution 13-11-1958

(Modification of Laws)

(Ordinances and

Proclamations) Order 1958

Act A756 Sale of Goods 23-02-1990

(Amendment and Extension)

Act 1990

Sale of Goods 31

LAWS OF MALAYSIA

Act 382

SALE OF GOODS ACT 1957

LIST OF SECTIONS AMENDED

Section Amending authority In force from

1 Act A756 23-02-1990

2 L.N. 332/1958 13-11-1958

DICETAK OLEH

PERCETAKAN NASIONAL MALAYSIA BERHAD,

KUALA LUMPUR

BAGI PIHAK DAN DENGAN PERINTAH KERAJAAN MALAYSIA


CommonLII: Copyright Policy|Disclaimers|Privacy Policy|Feedback
URL: http://www.commonlii.org/my/legis/consol_act/soga19571989203

Leave a Comment

(0 Comments)

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *