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Voting System In India Essay

For the most recent general election, see Indian general election, 2014.

The 2014 general election involved an electorate of 863,500,000 people. It was conducted in nine stages.[1][2] The expenditure for the 2014 election was approximately 3765 crore. The cost per voter was Rs 1375.[3] Votes were made using over one million electronic voting machines.[4] In the 2014 election, the National Democratic Alliance led by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) came to power. The BJP secured a majority of 282 seats. Narendra Modi of the BJP became Prime Minister of India.

Background[edit]

India's government is based on Federalism. Elected officials are appointed at federal, state and local levels. In India, there is universal suffrage. Results of elections are determined by first-past-the-post system.[5] Elections are conducted by the Election Commission of India.

The Prime Minister of India, is elected by members of the Lok Sabha, the lower house of parliament.[6] The Constitution of India allows for up to 552 members in the Lok Sabha, with up to 530 members representing the States. Up to 20 members represent the Union Territories. In practice, 543 members of the Lok Sabha are elected every five years. Two members are elected by the President of India to represent the Anglo-Indian community.[7]

In 1952, there were 1874 candidates vying for places in the Lok Sabha. In 1996, this number rose to 139,529 candidates. in 2009, there were only 80,708 candidates.[8] The number of votes and seats won provides a ranking of the major political parties.[9]

The Rajya Sabha is the upper house of parliament. 233 of its members are elected indirectly by the legislative assemblies of the states and the Electoral College of the Union Territories. The President of India appoints 12 of its members. (See Wikipedia, "Rajya Sabha.")[10] 233 members are elected for a six-year term. Every two years, one third of the members retire. The elected members are chosen by proportional representation via the single transferable vote. There are twelve nominated members who are usually an eclectic mix of eminent artists (including actors), scientists, jurists, sportsmen and women, businessmen, journalists and other citizens.[11]

FirstSecondThird
YearElectionTotal seatsPartySeats % votesPartySeats % votesPartySeats % votes
1951-52 [12][13][14]1st Lok Sabha489INC364100%CPI163.29%SOC1210.59%
1957 [15]2nd Lok Sabha494INC371100%CPI278.92%PSP1910.41%
19623rd Lok Sabha494INC361100%CPI299.94%SWA187.89%
19674th Lok Sabha520INC283100%SWA448.67%BJS359.31%
19715th Lok Sabha518INC352100%CPM255.12%CPI234.73%
19776th Lok Sabha542JP330100%INC15434.52%CPM224.29%
19807th Lok Sabha529 ( 542* )INC(I)35142.69%JNP(S)419.39%CPM376.24%
19848th Lok Sabha514INC404100%TDP304.31%CPM225.87%
19899th Lok Sabha529INC195100%JD14217.79%BJP8911.36%
199110th Lok Sabha521INC232100%BJP12020.11%JD5911.84%
199611th Lok Sabha543BJP16120.29%INC14028.80%JD4623.45%
199812th Lok Sabha545BJP18225.59%INC14125.82%CPM325.16%
199913th Lok Sabha545BJP18223.75%INC11428.30%CPM335.40%
200414th Lok Sabha543INC14526.53%BJP13822.16%CPM435.66%
200915th Lok Sabha545INC20628.55%BJP11618.80%SP233.23%
201416th Lok Sabha545BJP28231.34%INC4419.52%AIADMK373.31%

* : 12 seats in Assam and 1 in Meghalaya did not vote.[16]

Indian political parties[edit]

From 1947 to 1964, the Indian National Congress was India's dominant political party. It was led by Jawaharlal Nehru (1889 – 1964), K Kamaraj (1903 – 1975) and then Lal Bahadur Shastri (1905 – 1966). In the 1970s, the Congress party splintered. Indira Gandhi then led the party to election victory. In 1977, the Congress party lost to an opposition coalition that represented voters opposed to India's state of emergency which had been imposed in 1975. Indira Gandhi regained power but was assassinated in 1984. After her death, her son, Rajiv Gandhi (1941 – 1991) led the party. In 1989, the Congress party lost to a coalition led by VP Singh (1931 – 2008) after Rajiv Gandhi was accused of corruption. In 1990, the Congress party returned to power, led by P V Narasimha Rao (1921 – 2004).

In 1996, a coalition government was formed, mostly from regional parties. Further coalition governments followed, led by Atal Bihari Vajpayee, I K Gujral and H D Deve Gowda. In 1999, the National Democratic Alliance led by the Bharatiya Janata Party came to power and completed a full term. For the next decade, the United Progressive Alliance led by the Indian National Congress party formed government under Manmohan Singh.

Parties with strong traditional regional bases include the Telugu Desam Party, the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, and the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam. In the 1990s, new regional parties emerged including the Indian National Lok Dal, Shiromani Akali Dal, Shiv Sena, Samajwadi Party, Bahujan Samaj Party, and Janata Dal. Such parties may promote regional aspirations such as Telangana Rashtra Samithi and Shiv Sena or caste considerations as in the case of the Bahujan Samaj Party.

Election Commission[edit]

The Election Commission of India is an autonomous entity proscribed in the Constitution of India. It is the federal authority responsible for administering all the electoral processes of India and ensuring they are free and fair.[17]

Elections are conducted according to constitutional provisions and parliamentary legislation. These include the Representation of the People Act, 1950, which mainly deals with the preparation and revision of electoral rolls, and the Representation of the People Act, 1951 which deals, in detail, with all aspects of conduct of elections and post election disputes. The Supreme Court of India has held that where the enacted laws are silent or make insufficient provision to deal with a given situation in the conduct of elections, the Election Commission has the residuary powers under the Constitution to act in an appropriate manner.

From 1947 to 16 October 1989, there was one Chief Election Commissioner. From 1989 to 1 January 1990, there were two commissioners. The Election Commissioner Amendment Act, 1993 made the Election Commission a multi-member body. On 1 October 1993, a further two commissioners were appointed. Decisions are made by majority vote.

Electoral procedures[edit]

Candidates are required to file their nomination papers with the Electoral Commission. Then, a list of candidates is published. No party is allowed to use government resources for campaigning. No party is allowed to bribe the candidates before elections. The government cannot start a project during the election period. Campaigning ends at 6:00 pm on the second last day before the polling day.

The polling is held between 7:00 am and 6:00 pm. The Collector of each district is in charge of polling. Government employees are employed as poll officers at the polling stations. Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) are being used instead of ballot boxes to prevent election fraud. After a citizen votes, his or her left index finger is marked with an indelible ink. This practice was instituted in 1962.

Indelible ink[edit]

Research into an indelible ink was commenced by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (|CSIR). In the 1950s, M. L. Goel worked on this research at the Chemical Division of the National Physical Laboratory of India. The ink used contains silver nitrate and so, is photo-sensitive. It is stored in amber coloured plastic or brown coloured glass bottles. On application, the ink remains on the fingernail for at least two days. It may last up to a month depending upon the person's body temperature and the environment.

Electronic voting[edit]

Electronic voting machines (EVM) were first used in the 1999 election and became the only method of voting in 2004. The EVMs save time and report results. A voter-verified paper audit trail (VVPAT) was introduced on 14 August 2013. The first election to implement the VVPAT was a by-election in the Noksen assembly constituency in Nagaland.[18] In the 2014 general election, VVPAT was operational in 8 constituencies as a pilot project.[19][20][21][22] These included Lucknow, Gandhinagar, Bangalore South, Chennai Central, Jadavpur, Raipur, Patna Sahib and Mizoram constituencies.[23][24][25][26][27][28] A slip generated by the VVPT tells voter to which party or candidate their vote has been given, their name, their constituency and their polling booth.[29][30][31][32][33]. VVPAT has been in news recently (2017), following the demand of Opposition parties to make it mandatory in upcoming elections all over India due to allegations on the government of hacking the EVM. For the voters it is very important to know on how the VVPAT works to enable them cross check whether the vote they have given goes to the right candidate. Here is a brief " At the point when the voter presses the button against the name of the applicant of her/his decision on the EVM unit, the VVPAT unit produces a paper slip, additionally called 'ballot slip'. This paper slip contains the name, serial number, and image of the candidate selected by the voter for his vote. "

NOTA[edit]

Further information: None of the Above in Indian Elections

On 27 September 2013, the Supreme Court of India judged that citizens have the right to a negative vote by exercising a "None of the above" (NOTA) option. This was the result of petitioning from the Electoral Commission and the People's Union for Civil Liberties from 2009. In November 2013, NOTA was introduced in five state elections.[34]

Absentee voting[edit]

India does not provide general absentee voting.[35][36][37] On 24 November 2010, the Representation of the People (Amendment) Bill 2010 was gazetted to give voting rights to non-resident Indians but a physical present at the voting booth is still required.[38][39][40][41]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Ink used in Indian elections
Balloting unit (left), control unit (right)

We are providing many paragraphs, long essay in very simple language with the boundaries of different words here.  Here you can find Essay on Electoral Reforms and Indian Democracy in English language for students in 1000 words. In this article cover Topic : Importance of election in democracy, Election procedure in India, Significant amendments in the acts, Introduction of electronic voting machine, The concept of NOTA, The different committees' contribution regarding electoral system, Criminalisation of politics and electoral system and Steps taken by the Election Commission to strengthen democracy.

India has the distinction of being the world's largest democracy and elections are an integral part of the democratic system. A successful democracy is based on independent and unbiased elections, which is not on people with rigging and tampering. While politics is the art and practice of dealing with political power, elections are the process of validity of such power.

The Indian Election Commission (ECI) is a permanent constitutional body established on January 25, 1950. Reserve Bank of India is the guardian of independent and fair elections in India. After independence, elections are held every five years at the state and national level so that people can choose representatives and choose the government. About the election of Article 326, House of People and Legislative Assemblies of the Indian Constitution.

In these years, there have been many electoral reforms in India. With the amendment of the Constitution (1 Amendment) Act, 1988, the age of voters was reduced from 21 to 18 years and it completely approved the new generation voters. A new Section 13 CCC was added under the Public Representation Act, 1951, in which it provides that officers or employees engaged in the preparation, modification and improvement of the electoral roll for the election will be deemed to be deputed on the Election Commission for this period. . During this period, employment and such employees are subject to the control, superintendence and discipline of the Election Commission. Apart from this, the number of voters who will be included in the nomination papers for the elections of states and legislative councils has been increased to 10 percent in the constituency of 10 voters, which is less to stop the ruthless candidates. . For the general elections in November 1988, for the first time in the Assembly constituencies in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and New Delhi, electronic voting machine (EVM) was used on an experimental basis. Election Commission has successfully completed the important work of introduction of the photo identity card for all the voters of the country to use the EVM during the rights elections under section 324 of the Constitution. It has been successful in eliminating fraudulent and duplicate entries during the elections.

In 2013, during the assembly elections held in these five states, no-nota (no other option) was used for the first time. The Honorable Supreme Court recognized the rights of the citizens of the People's Union for Civil Liberties v. Union of India Case Nota, recognized the rights of the citizens and recognized that during these differences, they should vote during their confidentiality. The real spirit of democracy lies in giving citizens the power to use their rights. Nota changed the process of filling the form 17 (A), which was used to cast negative votes. Form 17 (A) was under Section 49 (0) of the Conduct of Election Rules, 1961.

Despite all these reforms, there are many such serious issues that have suffered the Indian election system for decades. Consequently, many committees have tested the major challenges affecting these issues and the Indian election system. National Commission, ECI proposed to review the functions of the Goswami Committee (1990), Vohra Committee (1993), Indijit Gupta Committee election, state fund (1998), constitution (2001) on election reforms in committees Electoral Reforms (2004), Second Administrative Reforms Commission (ARC-2008) and Indian Law Commission all these committees pointed to deviation and irregularities in the election process and then for its implementation Made Ifarisen.

Elections have become synonymous with corruption, communalism, violence and power. Criminalization of politics has misused money and power. Law-breaking people have become law makers when it is difficult to expect fair and just judgment. Due to the inclusion of anti-social elements in the legislatures, the essence of democracy was diluted and led to a weak electoral system. Section 8 of the Representation of the People Act, strongly supported the ineligibleness of the candidates with criminal background. But according to Section 8, a person is declared disqualified by the court on the basis of only one sentence. The Election Commission has proposed to amend this amendment 4 times in the law so that any person can be disqualified from contesting elections in eight convicts for 5 years or more in the charge of criminal offense. The fact is that it will play an important role in cleansing the Indian political system. ILAT In July 2013, the Hon'ble Supreme Court had given a decision that MPs and MLAs are being held guilty of serious crimes to prevent them from contesting elections. This section has not been strictly adhered to in Indian elections. Opponents of this law have firmly believed that a person is considered innocent until a court is proved guilty.

It is contradictory that everyone, including the Election Commission, knows that the limit for the prescribed expenditure for elections is enough to cover only the small proportion of the actual expenses. There is no medium through which the EC can examine expenditure incurred by candidates and political parties during the elections. During the election period, the state and central government became stiff in advertising under the guise of providing information to the public. The expenditure on these has been recovered from the official treasury. It is in the power of the government which has an edge over others, payments news and political advertisements in the regional and national media are increasing rapidly. Election Commission has determined the morality of the code of conduct of political parties as well as candidates of political parties. But the bitter truth is that these rules are explicitly mentioned and they never follow. Unfortunately there is no shortage of laws, but their strict execution and implementation.

Over the years, the Election Commission has organized several commendable reforms to strengthen democracy and conduct free and fair elections. However, still much more can be done. Elections • The commission should be dealt with more power and authority. It should have the power to punish politicians and political parties who do not violate election laws. Political parties need to show their desire to follow the reforms. It is high time that citizens of India vote above the issues of religion, caste and community, and vote on the basis of their commitment. Citizens should be aware of their rights and duties. An enlightened voter is the basis of a successful democracy. All these reforms will make India a long way to make democracy in its true sense.

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