Forest Management Techniques Essay
Forest management is a branch of forestry concerned with overall administrative, economic, legal, and social aspects, as well as scientific and technical aspects, such as silviculture, protection, and forest regulation. This includes management for aesthetics, fish, recreation, urban values, water, wilderness, wildlife, wood products, forest genetic resources, and other forest resource values. Management can be based on conservation, economics, or a mixture of the two. Techniques include timber extraction, planting and replanting of various species, cutting roads and pathways through forests, and preventing fire.
The forest is a natural system that can supply different products and services. The working of this system is influenced by the natural environment: climate, topography, soil, etc., and also by human activity. The actions of humans in forests constitute forest management. In developed societies, this management tends to be elaborate and planned in order to achieve the objectives that are considered desirable.
Some forests have been and are managed to obtain traditional forest products such as firewood, fiber for paper, and timber, with little thinking for other products and services. Nevertheless, as a result of the progression of environmental awareness, management of forests for multiple use is becoming more common.
Public input and awareness
There has been increased public awareness of natural resource policy, including forest management. Public concern regarding forest management may have shifted from the extraction of timber for earning money for the economy, to the preservation of additional forest resources, including wildlife and old growth forest, protecting biodiversity, watershed management, and recreation. Increased environmental awareness may contribute to an increased public mistrust of forest management professionals. But it can also lead to greater understanding about what professionals do re forests for nature conservation and ecological services. The importance of taking care of the forests for ecological as well as economical sustainable reasons has been shown in the TV show Ax Men.
Many tools like GIS and photogrammetry modelling have been developed to improve forest inventory and management planning. Since 1953, the volume of standing trees in the United States have increased by 90% due to sustainable forest management.
The abundance and diversity of birds, mammals, amphibians and other wildlife are affected by strategies and types of forest management.
Forest management varies in intensity from a leave alone, natural situation to a highly intensive regime with silvicultural interventions. Forest Management is generally increased in intensity to achieve either economic criteria (increased timber yields, non-timber forest products, ecosystem services) or ecological criteria (species recovery, fostering of rare species, carbon sequestration).
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- ^Young, Raymond (1982). Introduction to Forest Science. John Wiley & sons. p. 207. ISBN 0471064386.
- ^Shindler, Bruce; Lori A. Cramer (January 1999). "Shifting Public Values for Forest Management: Making Sense of Wicked Problems". Western Journal of Applied Forestry. Society of American Foresters. 14 (1): 28–34. ISSN 0885-6095. Retrieved 2008-08-25.
- ^I. Balenovich, A. Seletkovich, et al. Comparison of Classical Terrestrial and Photogrammetric Method in Creating Management Division. FORMEC. Croatia 2012. P. 1-13.
- ^I. Balenović, D. Vuletić, et al. Digital Photogrammetry — State of the Art and Potential for Application in Forest Management in Croatia. SEEFOR. South-East European Forestry. #2, 2011. Pp. 81–93.
- ^Mozgeris, G. (2008) “The continuous field view of representing forest geographically: from cartographic representation towards improved management planning”. S.A.P.I.EN.S.1 (2)
- ^The Value of Hardwood Floors
- ^* Philip Joseph Burton. 2003. Towards sustainable management of the boreal forest 1039 pages
- ^Classification of Forest Management Approaches: A New Conceptual Framework and Its Applicability to European Forestry Philipp S. Duncker 1, Susana M. Barreiro 2, Geerten M. Hengeveld 3, Torgny Lind 4, William L. Mason 5, Slawomir Ambrozy 6 and Heinrich Spiecker 1|http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol17/iss4/art51/
Sustainable forest management
Sustainable forest management is recognised as the optimum way to manage our precious forest resources. It's also the foundation from which a 'chain of custody', the process to track the origin of a raw material from the beginning to end of the production process, is established. The chain of custody verifys that the wood used at each stage of the production process comes from a forest independently certified as being managed in a sustainable way.In order to be truly sustainable, biodiversity within the forest must be maintained. Therefore, forest management techniques are constantly being adapted and improved. New forestry projects offer a unique opportunity. Aided by computer technology, the forester can design a forest that takes into account rock and soil structures, and climatic features. To obtain the best ecological balance, analysis of the soil and vegetation helps to determine the best-suited tree species and the most suitable areas to set aside for wildlife management. Visible contours and physical features help to site roads within the landscape, both for efficient management and to offer opportunities for recreation.
Although most European paper companies don't own or manage the large majority of forests that supply the wood they use (only 4% do) the industry is fully committed to supporting the goal of sustainable forest management.
For example, active wood procurement policies mean that companies importing wood from Russia have systems in place to assess the activities of their suppliers and conduct studies in logging areas and track the imported shipments. The European paper industry has a commitment to combat illegal logging and does not use wood that is harvested in violation of national or state laws. The vast majority of the industry's pulpwood: (80%) is sourced in Europe.
Six Criteria for Sustainable Forest Management