1 Dujas

General Assignment Reporter Traduction English-French

WordReference English-French Dictionary © 2018:

Principales traductions
compensationnnoun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. (reaction)compensation nfnom féminin: s'utilise avec les articles "la", "l'" (devant une voyelle ou un h muet), "une". Ex : fille - nf > On dira "la fille" ou "une fille". Avec un nom féminin, l'adjectif s'accorde. En général, on ajoute un "e" à l'adjectif. Par exemple, on dira "une petite fille".
  (Finance)dédommagement nmnom masculin: s'utilise avec les articles "le", "l'" (devant une voyelle ou un h muet), "un". Ex : garçon - nm > On dira "le garçon" ou "un garçon".
  (Finance)indemnité nfnom féminin: s'utilise avec les articles "la", "l'" (devant une voyelle ou un h muet), "une". Ex : fille - nf > On dira "la fille" ou "une fille". Avec un nom féminin, l'adjectif s'accorde. En général, on ajoute un "e" à l'adjectif. Par exemple, on dira "une petite fille".
  (Finance)dommages et intérêts nmplnom masculin pluriel: s'utilise avec l'article défini "les". nmpl = nom pluriel au masculin, nfpl = nom pluriel au féminin
 
Traductions supplémentaires
compensationnnoun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. (salary, pay)rémunération nfnom féminin: s'utilise avec les articles "la", "l'" (devant une voyelle ou un h muet), "une". Ex : fille - nf > On dira "la fille" ou "une fille". Avec un nom féminin, l'adjectif s'accorde. En général, on ajoute un "e" à l'adjectif. Par exemple, on dira "une petite fille".
 The position offers adequate compensation and benefits.
 Ce poste offre une rémunération et des avantages en conséquence.
compensationnnoun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. (offsetting shortcomings)dédommagement nmnom masculin: s'utilise avec les articles "le", "l'" (devant une voyelle ou un h muet), "un". Ex : garçon - nm > On dira "le garçon" ou "un garçon".
 Some parents buy numerous toys for their children as compensation for working so much.
 Certains parents couvrent leurs enfants de jouets en guise de dédommagement pour leurs gros efforts.

WordReference English-French Dictionary © 2018:

Formes composées
compensation packagennoun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. (pay and benefits given to an employee)avantages salariaux nmplnom masculin pluriel: s'utilise avec l'article défini "les". nmpl = nom pluriel au masculin, nfpl = nom pluriel au féminin
 Despite having little experience, his compensation package was quite generous.
disability compensationnnoun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. (payments for injury or illness)indemnités d'incapacité nfnom féminin: s'utilise avec les articles "la", "l'" (devant une voyelle ou un h muet), "une". Ex : fille - nf > On dira "la fille" ou "une fille". Avec un nom féminin, l'adjectif s'accorde. En général, on ajoute un "e" à l'adjectif. Par exemple, on dira "une petite fille".
be entitled to compensationv exprverbal expression: Phrase with special meaning functioning as verb--for example, "put their heads together," "come to an end." (deserve financial reparation)avoir droit à une indemnisation loc vlocution verbale: groupe de mots fonctionnant comme un verbe. Ex : "faire référence à"
 The judge decided that I was entitled to compensation for the damages. After my car wreck I was entitled to compensation for my hospital bills.
 Le juge a décidé que j'avais le droit à une indemnisation pour les dégâts.
just compensationnnoun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. (law: fair payment)juste rémunération nfnom féminin: s'utilise avec les articles "la", "l'" (devant une voyelle ou un h muet), "une". Ex : fille - nf > On dira "la fille" ou "une fille". Avec un nom féminin, l'adjectif s'accorde. En général, on ajoute un "e" à l'adjectif. Par exemple, on dira "une petite fille".
monetary compensationnnoun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. (reimbursement, financial recompense)indemnisation financière nfnom féminin: s'utilise avec les articles "la", "l'" (devant une voyelle ou un h muet), "une". Ex : fille - nf > On dira "la fille" ou "une fille". Avec un nom féminin, l'adjectif s'accorde. En général, on ajoute un "e" à l'adjectif. Par exemple, on dira "une petite fille".
 The airline lost my luggage and I am seeking monetary compensation.
 This sentence is not a translation of the original sentence. La convention de Varsovie régit les indemnisations financières en cas de pertes de bagages.
  indemnité nfnom féminin: s'utilise avec les articles "la", "l'" (devant une voyelle ou un h muet), "une". Ex : fille - nf > On dira "la fille" ou "une fille". Avec un nom féminin, l'adjectif s'accorde. En général, on ajoute un "e" à l'adjectif. Par exemple, on dira "une petite fille".
 This sentence is not a translation of the original sentence. Toute compagnie aérienne est tenue de verser une indemnité pour la perte de bagages.
  compensation financière nfnom féminin: s'utilise avec les articles "la", "l'" (devant une voyelle ou un h muet), "une". Ex : fille - nf > On dira "la fille" ou "une fille". Avec un nom féminin, l'adjectif s'accorde. En général, on ajoute un "e" à l'adjectif. Par exemple, on dira "une petite fille".
 This sentence is not a translation of the original sentence. La compagnie vous offre une compensation financière pouvant atteindre 1000 $ pour vous soumettre à des expérimentations médicales.
  dédommagement pécuniaire nmnom masculin: s'utilise avec les articles "le", "l'" (devant une voyelle ou un h muet), "un". Ex : garçon - nm > On dira "le garçon" ou "un garçon".
 This sentence is not a translation of the original sentence. La compagnie aérienne promet un dédommagement pécuniaire pour la perte des bagages.
unemployment compensationnnoun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. US (allowance paid to those out of work)allocation de chômage nfnom féminin: s'utilise avec les articles "la", "l'" (devant une voyelle ou un h muet), "une". Ex : fille - nf > On dira "la fille" ou "une fille". Avec un nom féminin, l'adjectif s'accorde. En général, on ajoute un "e" à l'adjectif. Par exemple, on dira "une petite fille".
 Following his injury at work he was able to claim unemployment compensation.

Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press. The organization, with a head office in Paris, France, has consultant status at the United Nations.[1][2]

Reporters Without Borders has two primary spheres of activity: one is focused on Internet censorship and the new media, and the other on providing material, financial and psychological assistance to journalists assigned to dangerous areas.[3] Its missions are to:

  • continuously monitor attacks on freedom of information worldwide;
  • denounce any such attacks in the media;
  • act in cooperation with governments to fight censorship and laws aimed at restricting freedom of information;
  • morally and financially assist persecuted journalists, as well as their families; and
  • offer material assistance to war correspondents in order to enhance their safety.

Background[edit]

Reporters Without Borders was founded in 1985 by Robert Ménard, Rémy Loury, Jacques Molénat and Émilien Jubineau, in Montpellier, France.[4] Its head office is in the 2nd arrondissement of Paris.[5] RWB also maintains offices in Berlin, Brussels, Geneva, Madrid, Rome, Stockholm, Tunis, Vienna, and Washington, D.C. Their first office in Asia, located in Taipei, Taiwan, officially opened in July 2017.[6][7][8] Taiwan has been rated the top Asian nation in RSF’s Press Freedom Index for five consecutive years, since 2013, and ranked 45th in 2017.[9][10]

At first, the association worked to promote alternative journalism, but there were disagreements between the founders. Finally, only Ménard remained and he changed the organization's direction towards promoting freedom of the press.[4] Reporters Without Borders states that it draws its inspiration from Article 19 of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, according to which everyone has "the right to freedom of opinion and expression" and also the right to "seek, receive and impart" information and ideas "regardless of frontiers".

Ménard was RWB's first Secretary General. Jean-François Julliard succeeded Ménard in 2008.[11] Christophe Deloire succeeded Julliard in July 2012 when he became Director General.[12]

Reporters Without Borders' primary means of direct action are appeals to government authorities through letters or petitions, as well as frequent press releases. Through its world-wide network of roughly 150 correspondents, RWB gathers information and conducts investigations of press freedom violations by region (Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East and North Africa, and the Americas) or topic. If necessary, it will send a team of its own to assess working conditions for journalists in a specific country. It releases annual reports on countries as well as the Press Freedom Index. It has launched advertising campaigns with the pro bono assistance of advertising firms to raise public awareness of threats to freedom of information and freedom of the press, to undermine the image of countries that it considers enemies of freedom of expression, and to discourage political support by the international community for governments that attack rather than protect freedom of information.[4]

RWB also provides assistance for journalists and media who are either in danger or are having difficulty subsisting. They provide money to assist exiled or imprisoned journalists and their families and the unsupported families of journalists who have been killed; to enable journalists to leave their home countries if they are in danger there; to repair the effects of vandalism on media outlets; to cover the legal fees of journalists who have been prosecuted for their writings or the medical bills of those who have been physically attacked; and upon occasion, to provide bullet-proof vests for use by journalists.[13]

Partners[edit]

Reporters Without Borders is a founding member of the International Freedom of Expression Exchange, a virtual network of non-governmental organizations that monitors free expression violations worldwide and defends journalists, writers and others who are persecuted for exercising their right to freedom of expression.

RWB has a presence in 150 countries through local correspondents who act as information relays and through close collaborations with local and regional press freedom groups, including:[14]

CountryOrganization
BangladeshBangladesh Centre for Development, Journalism and Communication (BCDJC)
BelarusBelarusian Association of Journalists (BAJ)
BurmaBurma Media Association (BMA)
ColombiaCeso-FIP (Solidarity Centre-International Federation of Journalists)
ColombiaColombian Federation of Journalists (FECOLPER)
Democratic Republic of CongoJournalist In Danger (JED)
EritreaAssociation of Eritrean Journalists in Exile
HondurasCommittee for Free Expression (C-Libre)
IraqJournalistic Freedom Observatory (JFO)
KazakhstanJournalists in Danger
MexicoCentre for Journalism and Public Ethics (CEPET)
PakistanTribal Union of Journalists (TUJ)
RomaniaMedia Monitoring Agency
RussiaGlasnost Defence Foundation (GDF)
SomaliaNational Union of Somali Journalists (NUSOJ)
Sri LankaJournalists for Democracy in Sri Lanka (JDS)
ThailandThai Netizen Network (TNN)
ZimbabweZimbabwe Journalists for Human Rights (ZJHR)

Awards received[edit]

Through the years RWB has received a number of awards, including:[4]

Publications[edit]

Reporters Without Borders issues press releases, fact finding reports, and periodical publications. It publishes periodic mission reports on developments in individual countries or regions or on a specific topic.[19] Each December it publishes an annual overview of events related to freedom of information and the safety of journalists.[20] It maintains a web site (www.rsf.org) accessible in six languages (French, English, Spanish, Arabic, Chinese, and Persian).[3]

World Press Freedom Index[edit]

Main article: Press Freedom Index

RWB compiles and publishes an annual ranking of countries based upon the organization's assessment of their press freedom records. Small countries, such as Andorra, are excluded from this report.

The report is based on a questionnaire sent to partner organizations of Reporters Without Borders (14 freedom of expression groups in five continents) and its 130 correspondents around the world, as well as to journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists.[22]

The survey asks questions about direct attacks on journalists and the media as well as other indirect sources of pressure against the free press. RWB is careful to note that the index only deals with press freedom, and does not measure the quality of journalism. Due to the nature of the survey's methodology based on individual perceptions, there are often wide contrasts in a country's ranking from year to year.

Predators of Press Freedom[edit]

Starting in 2001 Reporters Without Borders has published its annual Predators of Press Freedom list which highlights what it feels are the worst violators of press freedom.[23][24]

In 2016, RWB named 34 leaders or groups as Predators of Freedom of Information:

  • Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, President of Egypt
  • Alexander Lukashenko, President of Belarus
  • Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran
  • Al-Shabaab, armed Islamist militia, Somalia
  • Ansarullah Bangla Team, Islamic extremist organization
  • Bashar Al-Assad, President of Syria
  • Gurbanguly Berdymukhamedov, President of Turkmenistan
  • Hamad Ben Aissa Al Khalifa, King of Bahrain
  • The Houthis, (added 2016), Zaidi Shia-led movement
  • Ilham Aliev, President of Azerbaijan
  • Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Salafi jihadist militant group
  • Issaias Afeworki, President of Eritrea
  • Joseph Kabila, President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Kim Jong-un, Supreme leader, First Chairman of the National Defence Commission, and First Secretary of the Workers' Party, North Korea
  • Lee Hsien Loong, Prime Minister of Singapore
  • Los Zetas, Mexican drug cartel
  • Nguyen Phu Trong, Communist Party general secretary, Vietnam
  • Nicolás Maduro, President of Venezuela (added 2016)
  • Nursultan Nazarbayev, President of Kazakhstan
  • Omar Al-Bashir, President of Sudan
  • Pakistani government intelligence agencies
  • Paul Kagame, President of Rwanda
  • Pierre Nkurunziza, President of Burundi
  • Prayut Chan-o-cha, Prime Minister of Thailand
  • Ramzan Kadyrov, Head of Chechnya
  • Raúl Castro, President of the Council of State, Cuba
  • Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, President of Turkey (added 2016)
  • Robert Mugabe, President, Zimbabwe
  • Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, King of Saudi Arabia (added 2016)
  • Salva Kiir, President of South Sudan
  • The Taliban, Islamic fundamentalist movement
  • Teodoro Obiang Nguema, President of Equatorial Guinea
  • Vladimir Putin, President of Russian Federation
  • Xi Jinping, President and General Secretary of the Communist Party, China
  • Yahya Jammeh, President of Gambia

Seven leaders and ten groups were dropped from the list of predators in 2016:[25]

  • Abdallah Ibn Al-Saud, King, Saudi Arabia
  • Baloch armed groups, Pakistan
  • "Black Eagles", Paramilitary group, Colombia
  • Boko Haram, Islamist group, Nigeria
  • Choummaly Sayasone, President, Laos
  • Islam Karimov, President, Uzbekistan
  • Israel Defense Forces, Israel
  • Italianorganized crime
  • Jabhat Al-Nosra, Syrian jihadi group
  • Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, President, Iran
  • Maldives' Islamists
  • Miguel Facussé Barjum, Businessman and landowner, Honduras
  • Mswati III, King, Swaziland
  • Muslim Brotherhood, Egypt
  • Philippine private militias
  • Rajapaksa Brothers: Mahinda, President and Defence Minister and Gotabaya, Defence Secretary, Sri Lanka
  • Vasif Talibov, Supreme Council President, Azerbaijan

Press Freedom Barometer[edit]

RWB maintains a "Press Freedom Barometer" on its web site showing the number of journalists, media assistants, netizens, and citizen journalists killed or imprisoned during a year.[26]

 KilledImprisoned
YearJournalistsMedia
assist.
NetizensJournalists +
Media assist.
Netizens
2017[26]5287211161
2016[27]6189182149
2015[28]81619169163
2014[29]661119178178
2013[30]71639826127
2012[31]87749879144
2011[32]67241044199
2010[33]5810535152
2009[34]7510573151
2008[35]601067359
2007[36]88220
2006[37]85320
2005[38]6450
2004[39]63160
2003[40]4330
2002[41]2540

Handbooks for journalists and bloggers[edit]

Over the years, RWB has published several handbooks to provide assistance to journalists and bloggers, and to raise public awareness, including:[42]

  • Guide for journalists who are forced to flee into exile, June 2012[43]
  • Handbook for Bloggers and Cyber-Dissidents, September 2005, updated in March 2008[44]
  • Handbook for Journalists, April 2007, updated February 2013[45]
  • Handbook for journalists during elections, July 2012[46]
  • Safety Guide for Journalists, December 2015[47]

Enemies of the Internet and Countries under surveillance lists[edit]

Main article: Internet censorship and surveillance by country

In conjunction with its World Day Against Cyber Censorship, RWB updates its Enemies of the Internet and Countries under surveillance lists.[48]

In 2006, Reporters without Borders (Reporters sans frontières, RSF), a Paris-based international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, started publishing a list of "Enemies of the Internet".[49] The organization classifies a country as an enemy of the internet because "all of these countries mark themselves out not just for their capacity to censor news and information online but also for their almost systematic repression of Internet users."[50] In 2007 a second list of countries "Under Surveillance" (originally "Under Watch") was added.[51]

When the "Enemies of the Internet" list was introduced in 2006, it listed 13 countries. From 2006 to 2012 the number of countries listed fell to 10 and then rose to 12. The list was not updated in 2013. In 2014 the list grew to 19 with an increased emphasis on surveillance in addition to censorship. The list was not updated in 2015.

When the "Countries under surveillance" list was introduced in 2008, it listed 10 countries. Between 2008 and 2012 the number of countries listed grew to 16 and then fell to 11. The list was not updated in 2013, 2014, or 2015.

Special report on Internet Surveillance[edit]

On 12 March 2013 Reporters Without Borders published a "Special report on Internet Surveillance".[54] The report includes two new lists:

  • a list of "State Enemies of the Internet", countries whose governments are involved in active, intrusive surveillance of news providers, resulting in grave violations of freedom of information and human rights; and
  • a list of "Corporate Enemies of the Internet", companies that sell products that are liable to be used by governments to violate human rights and freedom of information.

The five "State Enemies of the Internet" named in March 2013 are: Bahrain, China, Iran, Syria, and Vietnam.[54]

The five "Corporate Enemies of the Internet" named in March 2013 are: Amesys (France), Blue Coat Systems (U.S.), Gamma International (UK and Germany), Hacking Team (Italy), and Trovicor (Germany).[54]

Media concentration report[edit]

In 2016, Reporters Without Borders published the Media: when oligarchs go shopping report which raises concern about media concentration around the world. The document identifies a "global phenomenon" - "the takeover of entire media groups...or landscapes...by extremely wealthy individuals whose interest in journalism is secondary to the defense of their personal interests."[55] According to the report, oligarchs "kill freedom of information" by censoring anything that threatens their interest, use their media outlets to "beat up opponents," and corrupt state authorities.[56] Reporters Without Borders raise concern about media concentration in Italy, Greece, Bulgaria, Russia, etc.[57] The report features a section on Bulgarian media tycoon Delyan Peevski who allegedly uses his media as "baseball bats" and publishes "insulting and denigrating articles against detractors." [58]

Photography books[edit]

Three times a year starting in 1992 RWB publishes a photography book in its series "100 Photos for Press Freedom" to both raise awareness and raise funds to support RWB's operations.[59] In 2010 roughly 45% of RWB's income came from sales of these and other related items (t-shirts, cards, ...).[3] The books are distributed free by the Nouvelles Messageries de la Presse Parisienne (NMPP). The books are sold by the French leisure chains and supermarkets Fnac, Carrefour, Casino, Monoprix and Cora, the websites alapage.com, fnac.com, and amazon.fr, as well as A2Presse and over 300 bookshops throughout France.[60]

In 2013 100 Photos for Press Freedom was, for the first time, published as a digital addition available through the Apple iTunes Store.[61]

Annual events[edit]

Reporters Without Borders holds several events through the year to promote press and Internet freedom.[3]

World Press Freedom Index (January)[edit]

Released each January the annually published World Press Freedom Index measures the degree of freedom enjoyed by the media in over 170 countries.[3]

World Day Against Cyber Censorship (12 March)[edit]

Reporters Without Borders launched the first International Online Free Expression Day on 12 March 2008.[48] Now named World Day Against Cyber Censorship, this annual event rallies support for an unrestricted Internet, accessible to all.[62] On 12 March RWB awards its Netizen Prize and issues its report on freedom of information in cyberspace and an "Enemies of the Internet" list which identifies those countries that are censoring the Web and harassing Internet users.

Netizen Prize[edit]

On World Day Against Cyber Censorship Reporters Without Borders awards an annual Netizen Prize that recognizes an Internet user, blogger, cyber-dissident, or group who has made a notable contribution to the defense of online freedom of expression.[3] Starting in 2010 the prize has been awarded to:

  • 2010: awarded to the Iranian women's rights activists of the Change for Equality website, www.we-change.org.[63]
  • 2011: awarded to the founders of a Tunisian blogging group named Nawaat.org.[64]
  • 2012: awarded to Syrian citizen journalists and activists of the Media center of the Local Coordination Committees.[65]
  • 2013: awarded to Vietnamese blogger Huynh Ngoc Chenh.[66]
  • 2014: awarded to Saudi Arabian blogger Raif Badawi.[67]

World Press Freedom Day (3 May)[edit]

Starting in 1992, Reporters Without Borders publishes its "Predators of Press Freedom" list of politicians, government officials, religious leaders, militias and criminal organisations who openly target journalists.[3]

Reporters Without Borders–TV5 Monde Prize (December)[edit]

The Reporters Without Borders Prize, in which Le Monde became a partner in 2011, was created in 1992 and is given annually to a journalist (and since 2003 a news media and a cyber-dissident as well) that made, in RWB's words, "a significant contribution to the defence and promotion of press freedom."[3] Prize recipients:

  • 1992: Zlatko Dizdarevic (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
  • 1993: Wang Juntao (China)
  • 1994: André Sibomana (Rwanda)
  • 1995: Christina Anyanwu (Nigeria)
  • 1996: Isik Yurtçu (Turkey)
  • 1997: Raúl Rivero (Cuba)
  • 1998: Nizar Nayyouf (Syria)
  • 1999: San San Nweh (Burma)
  • 2000: Carmen Gurruchaga (Spain)
  • 2001: Reza Alijani (Iran)
  • 2002: Grigory Pasko (Russia)
  • 2003: Ali Lmrabet (Morocco)
    • Media: The Daily News (Zimbabwe)
    • Press freedom defender: Michèle Montas (Haiti)
  • 2004: Hafnaoui Ghoul (Algeria)
    • Media: Zeta (Mexico)
    • Press freedom defender: Liu Xiaobo (China)
  • 2005: Zhao Yan (China)
    • Media: Tolo TV (Afghanistan)
    • Press freedom defender: National Union of Somali Journalists (Somalia)
  • 2006: Win Tin (Burma)
    • Media: Novaya Gazeta (Russia)
    • Press freedom defender: Journalist in Danger (DR of Congo)
  • 2007: Seyoum Tsehaye (Eritrea)
  • 2008: Ricardo Gonzales Alfonso (Cuba)
    • Media: Radio Free NK (North Korea)
  • 2009: Amira Hass (Israel)
    • Media: Dosh (Russia - Chechnya)
  • 2010: Abdolreza Tajik (Iran)
    • Media: Radio Shabelle (Somalia)
  • 2011: Ali Ferzat (Syria)
    • Media: Weekly Eleven News (Burma)[68][69]
  • 2012: Mazen Darwish, the head of the Syrian Centre for Media and Freedom of Expression (SCM), and
    • the Afghan daily newspaper 8Sobh (8 a.m.)[70]
  • 2013: Muhammad Bekjanov, imprisoned Uzbek journalist, and
  • 2014: Mexican journalist Sanjuana Martínez;
    • Liberia’s Frontpage Africa; and
    • Saudi blogger and human rights activist Raif Badawi.[67]
  • 2015: Syrian journalist Zeina Erhaim;
  • 2016: Syrian reporter Hadi Abdullah;
    • the Chinese news website 64Tianwang; and
    • Chinese citizen journalists Lu Yuyu and Li Tingyu.[73]

[edit]

Reporters Without Borders awards a cyber-dissident prize under various names including: Cyber-Freedom Prize and Cyber-dissident. Winners include:

Campaigns[edit]

RWB conducts advertising campaigns, jointly with communications professionals, to inform the public and to create bad publicity for governments that violate freedom of information. The campaigns are circulated to the media, international organisations, government agencies, and educational institutions using the Internet as well as traditional media channels.[3]

Examples include:

  • Sochi 2014 campaign. A program supporting journalists, bloggers, and human rights defenders in Russia, that ran from 1 March 2013 until the start of the Sochi Winter Olympic Games on 7 February 2014.[80]
  • Voiceless Eyes campaign. Using the catchphrase "How can you see the truth when it cannot be told?", an interactive site demonstrates the need for a free press as one element of a larger campaign launched in December 2012.[81] The web site uses webcam-activated technology to encourage users to cover and uncover their mouths to become aware of the harsh realities that can go unseen when restrictions are placed on free speech. An alternative version of the site uses the space bar. The site was selected as Site of the Day on 18 January 2013 by the Favourite Website Awards (FWA) of Cambridge, England.[82] Voiceless Eyes was developed for RWB at Les 84 Paris by creative directors Olivier Bienaime and Herve Bienaime, head of creative technology Jean-Vincent Roger, strategic planner Nicolas Camillini and art director Antoine Arnoux using images from AFP photographers Tony Karumba, Aris Messinis, Jay Directo, Mauricio Lima, Bulent Kilic, Christophe Simon, Dario Leon, Olivier Laban-Mattei, and Philippe Desmazes.[83]
  • We Fight Censorship project. An RWB project launched on 27 November 2012 with support from the European Union's European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR) and the Paris City Hall. The project's goal is to combat censorship and promote the flow of news and information by creating an easily duplicated web site that will be used to publish content (articles, photos, videos and sound files) that has been censored, banned, or has led to reprisals against its creator (murder, arrest, harassment, pressure and so on). The site will host content in its original language (including French, English, Chinese, Arabic, Russian and Spanish) and in translation (above all in French and English).[84][85]
  • Independent North Korean media campaign. An international advertising campaign launched on 17 January 2011 to support independent media in North Korea.[86]
  • Beijing 2008 campaign. Reporters Without Borders protested the possibility of China hosting the 2008 Summer Olympics since 2001. On 30 March 2008, the day the Olympic torch departed from Olympia, Greece, RWB president Robert Ménard unfurled behind Chinese representative Qi Liu a banner bearing a design resembling the logo of the Olympics, in which the Olympic rings were replaced with handcuffs. On 7 April 2008, the day the torch came to Paris, Ménard, with the help of two other activists, climbed to the top of Notre Dame Cathedral to hoist a banner with the same Olympic symbol.[87] In one of RWB's most popular campaigns to date, T-shirts bearing the symbol became so popular that sales for them surpassed 1 million euros.[88]

See also: Concerns and controversies over the 2008 Summer Olympics

  • Philippines. On 23 August 2007, RWB condemned the continuing threats and violence against Philippine radio commentators who report on organized crime and corruption, following a death threat on RGMA Palawan station manager Lily Uy.[89] On 27 December 2007, RWB appealed to Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo administration to forthwith arrest the killers of radio broadcaster Ferdinand Lintuan, 51, the fifth journalist killed in 2007 in the Philippines. As first president of the Davao Association of Sports Journalists he was murdered in Davao City on 24 December.[90]

Protests[edit]

RWB organises symbolic actions in front of the embassies of countries that restrict freedom of information and at various summits and key international events. Photos and videos from these "blitz" interventions are distributed by the international media which helps raise public awareness and identify the enemies of press freedom.[3]

Examples include:[3]

  • September 2011: During Rwandan President Paul Kagamé's official visit, as he greets a Medef delegation in the Hotel Ritz, activists are gagged with a red scarf to protest against the silence surrounding press freedom violations in Rwanda.
  • May 2011: On World Press Freedom Day, some activists threw buckets of blue paint on the outer walls of the Syrian Embassy in Paris, on which they have written the slogan "It is ink that should flow, not blood."
  • December 2010: Images of Hervé Ghesquière and Stéphane Taponier, France 3 journalists held hostage in Afghanistan, are projected onto the Arc de Triomphe on the first anniversary of their abduction.
  • November 2010: While Chinese President Hu Jintao's official procession moves down the Champs-Élysées, several activists open umbrellas bearing the slogan "Free Liu Xiaobo."
  • May 2010: Famous French reporters pose for a photo during a rally in support of Hervé Ghesquière and Stéphane Taponier, France 3 journalists held hostage in Afghanistan.
  • October 2007: "Press Freedom Predators" exhibit on the Esplanade of Human Rights in Paris.
  • October 2007: Rally marking the first anniversary of the murder of Russian journalist Anna Politkovskaya.
  • 2006: In a show of support for journalists jailed in Cuba, some activities simulate their incarceration on the Esplanade of Human Rights in Paris.
  • April 2005: To mark the first anniversary of Guy-André Kieffer's abduction in Abidjan, buckets of liquid cocoa and counterfeit dollars are thrown in front of the Ivory Coast Embassy in Paris.
  • March 2005: Rally in support of Florence Aubenas, reporter for Libération and Hussein Hanoun, her fixer, held hostage in Iraq.
  • September 2003: Catherine Deneuve joins forces with RWB to show support for Cuban journalists.

Funding[edit]

2010: 4.3 million euros[3]
Sources of income:
2014 World Press Freedom Index[21]

  Very serious situation

  Difficult situation

  Noticeable problems

  Satisfactory situation

  Good situation

  Not classified / No data

RWB handcuffs as Olympic rings protesting 2008 Olympics in China
The sign reads: Depuis 500 Jours, Hervé [Ghesquière] et Stéphane [Taponier] sont otages en Afghanistan (For 500 days, Hervé [Ghesquière] and Stéphane [Taponier] are hostages in Afghanistan)

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